Simile- Comparing two different things using the words “like”, “as” or “then”.
- eg “He looks like a dog”, “He ran as fast as a cheetah”.
Metaphor- Comparing two different things without using the words “like”,
“as” or “then”.
- eg “He is a dog”.
Personification- Giving non-human things human qualities.
- eg “The trees were dancing in the wind”.
Onomatopoeia- Sound words eg “crash”, “bang”, “boom”.
Alliteration- Where the first letter of almost every word in a short space (or a
whole sentence) are the same.
- eg “Busy bees buzzing bountifully”.
Foreshadowing- When an event or phrase is used to highlight what is likely to
happen later on in the text.
- eg “The fog had overcome the town and was an ominous
warning to something sinister happening”.
Accumulation- Saying the same idea or viewpoint in different ways.
- eg “He is annoying. He just won’t leave me alone. He just
doesn’t get it”.
Enjambment- Where there is no punctuation at the end of a line in a poem or
Imagery- Language used to create an image in the reader’s mind.
Allusion- Not directly saying something, bur referring to it.
- eg “I will carry my cross” which is biblical allusion, for eg.
Repetition- Saying the same word or phrase over and over.
- eg “Bones, bones, bones!”
Rhetorical Question- A question that is posed yet is not expected to be
answered (usually because it is quite obvious).
- eg “To be or not to be?”
Emotive/evocative language- Meant to add greater meaning, depth etc to the
idea being conveyed or argued for.
High Modality Language- Language used which is all encompassing and is
- eg “All were blind; All were hurt”.
Low Modality Language- Opposite of high modality.
- eg “Some were hurt, I think”.
Hyperbole- Another word for exaggeration. So, whenever there is
exaggeration then the technique used is hyperbole.
- eg “The girl broke her nail and thought that is was the end of the
Euphemism- A nice way of saying something horrible.
eg “He passed away” instead of “he died”.
Cliché- An overused saying.
- eg “The pot calling the kettle black”.
Binary Opposition- When two things that are complete opposites are placed
near each other in a text.
- eg “love and hate”.
Juxtaposition- Contrasting two or more different things.
- eg “Josh was always on time while John was always late”.
Oxymoron- When two completely opposite things are put together as a term.
- eg “Valley Heights”, “terrible beauty”.
Symbolism- When something is used to represent ideas or qualities.
- eg Kevin Rudd’s apology speech.
Inverted Syntax- Saying or writing something in an unusual way/manner,
primarily based on the structure of the sentence (like Yoda from Star Wars,
- eg “Your eyes had once” (you would usually write this as
“your eyes once had).
Capitalisation- When a word or term is wholly capitalised, indicating some
form of importance or significance.
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