There are varying rates of success among foreign language learners. These include age, intelligence, aptitude, motivation, attitude, personality, learning/cognitive style and learning strategies.
Definition of language learning strategies according to scholars : According to Brown 2007,” learning strategies are those specific “attacks” that we make on a given problem, they are the moment-by-moment techniques that we employ to solve problems posed by second language input and output”. For Chamot 2005, “language learning strategies are procedures that facilitate language learning task ...Strategies are most conscious and goal given”. Cohen 1998 defines them as being language learning processes which are consciously selected by the learner. For this scholar, “the element of choice is important...because it is this which gives a strategy its special character”. In Oxford 1999, it has cited learning strategies are specific actions, behaviors, steps, or techniques that students use to improve their own progress in developing skills in a second or foreign language. These strategies can facilitate the internalization, storage, retrieval, or use of the new language while for Reid 1995, language learning strategies are external skills that students use, often consciously, to improve their learning; we might describe them as study skills that students can be taught that can expand their existing learning styles. According to Ehrman, Leaver and Oxford 2003, a given learning strategy is neither good nor bad; it is essentially neutral until it is considered in context. A strategy is useful under these conditions: (a) the strategy relates well to the L2 task in hand, (b) the strategy fits the particular student’s learning style preferences to one degree or another, and (c) the student employs the strategy effectively and links it with other relevant strategies.
Therefore, from the above review, it is possible to identify five key features of strategies:
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