Language Change

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Key Dates
5th & 6th century - Anglo Saxons - Old English
8th & 9th century - Vikings - old English - harsh sounds
1066 - Norman Conquest - Middle English - French influences - semantic fields: government/food. 1475 - Caxton’s printing press - standardisation
15th & 16th century - early modern English - renaissance, expressive 17th century - late modern English - influence of theatre, science & religion -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18th century - age of reason - desire to fix our language

1755 -Johnsons dictionary, grammar publications
19th century - British Empire
1828 Webster’s American dictionary of English language
20th century - modern recording technology - spoken language, English becomes a global language, computers spell check & grammar, greater tolerance of regional change, equality

Lexical Change
Affixation - the addition of bound morphemes
Acronym - a word formed from initial parts
Initalism - a group of initials used to form a word, with the letters pronounced separately Eponyms - name of something after whom something is named
Compound - two words put together to form a new word in its entirety Blend - two words mixed together to make a new word
Archaisms - words that are obsolete and no longer used by general population Borrowing - introduction of a word from one language to another Proprietary names - name given to a product by one organisation and becomes commonly used name for the same product e.g. Hoover. Suffixes - the addition of a bound morpheme to the end of a root word Conversion - a word changes its word class without adding a suffix Back formation - removal of an imagined affix from an existing word

Semantic Change
Broadening - a word's meaning becomes more general but retains some of its original meaning Narrowing - a word's meaning becomes more specific
Amelioration - a word acquires more positive meaning
Pejoration - a word acquires...
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