2.1.How is Language organized
2.2.what is Language
2.3.The Essence of Language
3. Cognition , Language and Communication
3.1.Symbolic Communication As Strategic Tool Use
3.1.1.The Tools and Tool Use Model
3.1.2.The Tool and Tool Use Research Agenda
3.2.A Model Of The Tools Of Interpersonal Language
3.2.1.The Classification and Its Criteria
3.2.2.The Properties Of Interpersonal Language
A language is a system of symbols, generally known as lexemes and the grammars (rules) by which they are manipulated. The word language is also used to refer to the whole phenomenon of language, i.e., the common properties of languages. Language is commonly used for communication, though it has other uses. Language is a natural phenomenon, and language learning is common in childhood. In their usual form, human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for the symbols in order to communicate with others through the senses. Though there are thousands of human languages, they all share a number of properties from which there are no known deviations. There is no defined line between a language and a dialect, but it is often said that a language is a dialect with an army and a navy. Communication is the process of sending information to oneself or another entity, usually via a language. Specialized fields focus on various aspects of communication, and include Mass communication, Communication studies, Organizational Communication, Sociolinguistics, Conversation analysis, Cognitive linguistics, Linguistics, Pragmatics, Semiotics, and Discourse analysis.
We use language to communicate with each other in all sorts of ways. We try to sell each other soap and cars, real estate and swim suits. We say one thing, but we do so in a tone of voice that may clearly tell our listeners something very different. We sing to each other; we yell; we whisper; weplead. We draw on every skill studied in this book. To sum it all up, when it comes to communicating with others, we rely most heavily on our most sophisticated human skill – language .Think of the benefits provided by language. In printed form it allows us -- even as you are doing now, by reading – to educate ourselves. If your professor gives you a written assignment, it allows you more freedom than any other animal to express what is unique about you. In fact, language and its related processes may be the most important feature distinguishing humans from all other animals .The study of language leads naturally to a number of related questions which we address in this chapter: How do we organize our language for rapid recall of the words we need when we need them? What is language, and how does it contrast with speech? What are the distinguishing features of language? When we are processing language, what is the relative importance of sounds, syntax, and semantics? Are humans unique in their reliance on language? What is required of us physiologically and intellectually to use spoken language? Each of these questions identifies an important element in understanding the totality of humans' use of language.
2.1. How is Language Organized?
One of the most important questions about language concerns exactly how we store and retrieve information so that we can speak and write.There is no easy answer, but two suggestions have been made:
(1) Reappearance. You read in the chapter on remembering that through our life we do store certain experiences. If someone asked you right now to recall the first time you gave a talk before a group, you could recall (if you wanted to!) the complete event. In this sense remembering amounts only to stirring up something that already exists. That "memory" simply reappears. This is one theory as to...