Language and Its Characteristics

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Language is a means of forming and storing ideas as reflections of reality and exchanging them in the process of human intercourse. Language is social by nature; it is inseparably connected with the people who are its creators and users; it grows and develops together with the development of society. Language incorporates the three constituent parts ("sides"), each being inherent in it by virtue of it's social nature. These parts are the phonological system, the lexical system, the grammatical system. Only the unity of these three elements forms a language; without any one of them there is no human language in the above sense. The phonological system is the subfoundation of language; it determines the material (phonetical) appearance of its significant units. The lexical system is the whole set of naming means of language, that is, words and stable word-groups. The grammatical system is the whole set of regularities determining the combination of naming means in the formation of utterances as the embodiment of thinking process. Each of three constituent parts of language is studied by particular linguistic discipline. These disciplines presenting a series of approaches to their particular objects of analysis , give the corresponding "descriptions" of language consisting in ordered expositions of the constituent parts in question. Thus, the phonological description of language is effected by the science of phonology ; the lexical description of language is effected by the science of lexicology; the grammatical description of language is effected by the science of grammar. Now we are going to have a good look at each of these three disciplines.[Blokh,6] The first one is Phonology. The study of speech sounds is partitioned between two distinct but related disciplines, phonetic and phonology. Both terms come from the Greek word meaning 'sound', and there is a fair degree of overlap in what concerns the two subjects . Thus, the boundaries between...
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