As student of ESL Master (English as a second language) reading is one of the most important things to do in order to learn and analyze aspects of language, by the way there are some lectures that make us think deeply. In my personal situation two lectures made a big change in mi mind and took me to the realization of this small research. One of these is Mythology and the Tolerance of the Javanese (by Benedict R. O’G. Anderson). The tolerance of the Javanese is one of the most important aspects about Javanese culture. A typical Javanese can get along with Christians and Buddhists. They see truth in all religions. The Javanese sees “truth” but not “the truth”, in all religions. In other words they look and approve those ideas which are felt to be in harmony with the Javanese weltanschauung, the rest of any religion is ignored. One example is Christianity and particularly its catholic variant; it is tolerated for quiet specific social and political reasons. Religious Organization provides a highly access to the modernity. Another illustration of the Javanese idea of religion tolerance is the Javanese attitude toward Buddhism considered prestige for a variety of reasons. We should not argue that the Javanese are tolerant of Christianity and Buddhism as such, but insofar as these religion systems has been assimilated to “Javanism” and to extent that their adherents are respectable Javanese. In the other hand, the lecture Many Ramayanas, (by Paula Richman), I could find the diversity of the Ramayana Traditions and the impact that it had been in the Indian society. In other words, the goal of this lecture is the relations that exist between selected tellings of the Ramayana as well as the cultural context of those tellings. The lecture analyzes five tellings about the Ramayana and intrigues us because they testify the diversity of Indians culture, indicating that throughout history multiple voices were heard within the Ramayana tradition. The Ramayana tellings provide a set of resources on which people have drawn in their own way and for their own purposes in order to accuse, justify, meditate, persuade, and more and more things that maybe we have not even imagined. Therefore, these lectures make me sense in the aspect on how language through times has had a big impact over the world and how it can be transformed into convenience and benefit of ourselves.
In some ways, it is surprising that languages change. After all, they are passed down through the generations reliably enough for parents and children to communicate with each other. Yet linguists find that all languages change over time albeit at different rates. For example, while Japanese has changed relatively little over 1,000 years, English evolved rapidly in just a few centuries. Many present-day speakers find Shakespeare’s sixteenth century texts difficult and Chaucer’s fourteenth century Canterbury Tales nearly impossible to read. Languages change for a variety of reasons. Large-scale shifts often occur in response to social, economic and political pressures. History records many examples of language change fueled by invasions, colonization and migration. Even without these kinds of influences, a language can change dramatically if enough users alter the way they speak it. Frequently, the needs of speakers drive language change. New technologies, industries, products and experiences simply require new words. Plastic, cell phones and the Internet didn’t exist in years ago. By using new and emerging terms, we all drive language change. But the unique way that individuals speak also fuels language change. That’s because no two individuals use a language in exactly the same way. The vocabulary and phrases people use depend on where they live, their age, education level, social status and other factors. Through our interactions, we pick up new words and sayings and integrate them into our speech. Teens and young adults...