Land Pollution in Ibadan

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A TOWN PAPER ON
LAND POLLUTION IN IBADAN, THE CAUSES, EFFECTS, REMEDIAL MEASURES AND HOW EFFECTIVE THEY ARE.

COMPILED BY
ONIFADE SADIAT T
MATRIC NO. 073862

TO BE SUBMITTED TO THE DEARTMENT OF URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
LADOKE AKINTOLA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY,
OGBOMOSHO.

COURSE CODE: URP 305
COURSE TITLE: PLANNING STUDIO III

LECTURERS IN CHARGE:
TPL A.O AKINDELE
TPL E.A TOYOBO

MARCH, 2010
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
LAND POLLUTION
Land Pollution is the degradation of earth's land surfaces. Land can be polluted through soil or water. Human activities are the main factor and their misuse of land resources. Urbanization and industrialization are major causes of land pollution. Indiscriminate disposal of domestic (solid and liquid) and industrial wastes, exploitation of minerals, and improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few factors. Taking Ibadan as a case study, we are going to discuss the causes of land pollution in Ibadan, the effects, the remedial measures and how effective they are. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Ibadan was historically an Egba town. The Egba occupants were forced to leave the town and moved to present-day Abeokuta under the leadership of Sodeke when the surge of Oyo refugees flocked into the towns as an aftermath of the fall of Oyo Kingdom. Ibadan grew into an impressive and sprawling urban center so much that by the end of 1829, Ibadan dominated the Yorùbá region militarily, politically and economically. The military sanctuary expanded even further when refugees began arriving in large numbers from northern Oyo following raids by Fulani warriors. After losing the northern portion of their region to the marauding Fulanis, many Oyo indigenes retreated deeper into the Ibadan environs. The Fulani Caliphate attempted to expand further into the southern region of modern-day Nigeria, but was decisively defeated by the armies of Ibadan in 1840. The Ibadan area became a British Protectorate in 1893 and by then the population had swelled to 120,000. The British developed the new colony to facilitate their commercial activities in the area, and Ibadan shortly grew into the major trading center that it is today. At independence, Ibadan was the largest and the most populous city in Nigeria and the third in Africa after Cairo and Johannesburg. It is located in south-western, 128 km inland northeast of Lagos and 345 km southwest of , the federal capital and is a prominent point between the region and the areas to the north. The population of Ibadan was 2,550,593 according to 2006 census results, including 11local government areas. The principal inhabitants of the city are the Yorubas.

OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this study are;
To identify the major sources of waste in Ibadan
To identify the factors leading to land pollution
To identify the effects of land pollution

CHAPTER TWO
WASTE GENERATION
Waste which is one of the sources and causes of environmental pollution has been defined under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (2000) as any solid, semisolid liquid or contained gaseous materials discarded from industrial, commercial, mining or agricultural operations and from community activities. Waste also includes garbage, construction debris, commercial refuse, sludge from water, control facilities and other discarded materials. Most of the solid wastes, like paper, plastic containers, bottles, cans, and even used cars and electronic goods are not bio-degradable, which means they do not get broken down through inorganic or organic processes. Thus, when they accumulate they pose a health threat to people. Decaying wastes also attract household pests and result in urban areas becoming unhealthy, dirty, and unsightly places to reside in. Moreover, it also causes damage to terrestrial organisms, while also reducing the uses of the land for other, more useful purposes. Some of the sources of solid, liquid and gaseous...
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