Land Acquisition in India

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Land Acquisition in India

Mandar Buddhikot [G12026] XLRI GMP 2012-13

Some statistics of concern
 India occupies 2.4% of the total land area of the world

 India supports 16.7% of the world population.

Per capita usage of land in India:
1970 Population of India (in billion) Geographical area (million ha) Agricultural Land % Per capita land availability (ha) Per capita agricultural land (ha) 0.55 328.37 46.40% 0.60 0.28 1990 0.85 328.37 46.90% 0.39 0.18 2010 1.2 328.37 46.10% 0.27 0.13

Land Acquisition Act 1894
Land Acquisition  Land acquisition refers to the process by which Govt. forcibly acquires private property for public purpose. The Land Acquisition Act, 1894 – Established by British regime  Addresses the process of land acquisition in India.  After Independence, Indian Govt. adopted “Land Acquisition Act – 1894” as a tool for Land Acquisition.  Section 3(f) of The Land Acquisition Act defines Public purpose.  Public purpose – broadly means – for the general interest of the community  Refer – Appendix for details of clauses

Land Acquisition – Need & Concerns
Reasons/ Need for Land Acquisition  Industrial/ Economic growth – Transition from agriculture to industrial economy  Infrastructure development – Dams, Power plants, Roads, etc.  Industrial development – Industrial zones such as SEZs, setting up large factories, mines Concerns/ Resistances to Land acquisition  Environmental sustainability - soil erosion, ground-water reserves, bio-diversity, ecosystem  Reducing agricultural land – scarcity of food to support growing population  Social impact of disturbed livelihood & inadequate resettlement & rehabilitation

Examples of Unsuccessful Land acquisitions
Tata Nano – Small car project – Singur, West Bengal  Fertile, multi-crop, agricultural land  Strong community resistance, inadequate compensation Coca Cola – Bottling plant – Palakkad, Kerala  Initially welcomed, created jobs for locals  Water intensive plant led...
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