Land Acquisition in India
Mandar Buddhikot [G12026] XLRI GMP 2012-13
Some statistics of concern
India occupies 2.4% of the total land area of the world
India supports 16.7% of the world population.
Per capita usage of land in India:
1970 Population of India (in billion) Geographical area (million ha) Agricultural Land % Per capita land availability (ha) Per capita agricultural land (ha) 0.55 328.37 46.40% 0.60 0.28 1990 0.85 328.37 46.90% 0.39 0.18 2010 1.2 328.37 46.10% 0.27 0.13
Land Acquisition Act 1894
Land Acquisition Land acquisition refers to the process by which Govt. forcibly acquires private property for public purpose. The Land Acquisition Act, 1894 – Established by British regime Addresses the process of land acquisition in India. After Independence, Indian Govt. adopted “Land Acquisition Act – 1894” as a tool for Land Acquisition. Section 3(f) of The Land Acquisition Act defines Public purpose. Public purpose – broadly means – for the general interest of the community Refer – Appendix for details of clauses
Land Acquisition – Need & Concerns
Reasons/ Need for Land Acquisition Industrial/ Economic growth – Transition from agriculture to industrial economy Infrastructure development – Dams, Power plants, Roads, etc. Industrial development – Industrial zones such as SEZs, setting up large factories, mines Concerns/ Resistances to Land acquisition Environmental sustainability - soil erosion, ground-water reserves, bio-diversity, ecosystem Reducing agricultural land – scarcity of food to support growing population Social impact of disturbed livelihood & inadequate resettlement & rehabilitation
Examples of Unsuccessful Land acquisitions
Tata Nano – Small car project – Singur, West Bengal Fertile, multi-crop, agricultural land Strong community resistance, inadequate compensation Coca Cola – Bottling plant – Palakkad, Kerala Initially welcomed, created jobs for locals Water intensive plant led...
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