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Social Learning Theory| Biological approach|
The social learning theory is reductionist as it only focuses on one side of the aspect. It focuses on how behaviour is learned through observation in which they are imitating other people’s actions and behaviour. This can be explained as Albert Bandura (1977) states behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. Individuals that are observed are named models. In society, people such as children are surrounded by many influential models. This could include parents within the family, friends within their peer groups and at school and the media. The media can be an example could possibly be TV Disney characters. When children watch Cinderella they could possibly want to be like her, dress like her and act like her. Another example could be public health campaigns. JLS is a male group and they had brought out their own branded condoms. JLS had named their new range of condoms Just Love Safe in which encourages people to have safe sex. The target audience for the JLS branded condoms could possibly be for young teenagers as they have many JLS fans and now that they have brought out their own branded condoms teenagers now have an opportunity to have safe sex using the JLS condoms.People can learn inappropriate and unhelpful behaviour but then people can use the principles of operant conditioning to create a more new, helpful behaviour and eliminate the unhelpful ones. Using the principles of reinforcement and punishment is a very powerful way to change someone’s behaviour and this is often called behaviour modification. The technique tends to have been used with autistic children and this is to help them interact socially. Modelling behaviour is where people observe someone that they may admire behaviour in a particular way, and are more likely to imitate such behaviour. An example could be a sports personality such as Christiano Ronaldo is shown on television recommending wearing a cycle helmet; people are much more likely to feel motivated to imitate such behaviour themselves because this will bring them closer to being like their admired model. Features of a model that may influence people to imitate their behaviour could include: Status, fame, competence, prestige, gender and similarity to ourselves.There are many strengths and weaknesses of theory such as the Bobo Doll experiment. Strength: There were a precise control of variables and many of those variables were controlled such as the gender of the model, the behaviour of the model and the time the children observed the model. Weakness: Psychologists are very critical of laboratory studies of imitation. The experiment involves a child and a model. There is no interaction between the child and the model at any point so it is a very limited social situation.| The biological approach is reductionist as It also focuses on one side of the aspect. The biological approach adopts a reductionist explanation for human behaviour and thought. This means that psychological characteristics are reducedTo biological processes, such as the action of parts of the brain and the action of genes. Reductionism ignores the whole person in ways that humanisticPsychologists regard as essential.The role of neurotransmitters: Some neurotransmitters have been thought to contribute too many psychological disorders. Neurotransmitters are the brain chemicals that communicate information throughout the brain and body. They relay signals between nerve cells, called “neurons.” The brain uses neurotransmitters to tell your heart to beat, your lungs to breathe, and your stomach to digest. They can also affect mood, sleep, concentration, weight, and can cause adverse symptoms when they are out of balance. Neurotransmitter levels can be depleted many ways. One of the factors associated with schizophrenia is an excessive amount (too much) of dopamine High levels of serotonin have been thought to be...
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