AR2107 History of Architecture II
Ms. Chayapa M.
Lagging Behind – The Thought of Ecole des Beaux-Arts
The École des Beaux-Arts School is the famous Academy of Classical art with studies of painting, sculpture and principle of architecture located in France which titled to be the school that produce expertise in the classical art. The reasons of build school is lacking of talent engineer and architect. So Louis XIV starts to build "Royal Academy of Architecture” in 1671. After France revolution, Napoleon III granted the school independence from the government and the school changing name to "École des Beaux-Arts School" in 1863. 
The curriculum of the school divided into two major parts which is the "Academy of Painting and Sculpture" and " Academy of Architecture". By the curriculum focused on Classical style from ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The student will prove their basic skills with the basic drawing, mathematics, perspective and construction before go to study advance program of figure drawing and painting. The student will be spending a few years to study the first reticulum before moving to the major architecture study in the studio. Basically to graduate from the school requirement is around 12-15 years to complete and only one people will win in the competition which will earn them a trip to go to study in Rome.
Pierre François Henri Labrouste, French architect who admitted in École des Beaux-Arts School in 1819. He won the Grand Prix de Rome which is awarded to just only one student per year, and which funded the completion of the course in Italy studied Roman construction at the Villa Medici. While Labrouste is in Rome he works as a conservative of the temples at Paestum to make his controversy the way which he had studies from The Beaux-Arts which fasten on classical idea. He do believe that architecture build up from their own functional and the social surrounding, which mean that the architecture should be what it’s meant to be according to the usage and along with the need of the social, no dead rule for design. Labrouste give a statement about his intention of design work which surely affected the later generation; "In architecture, form must always be appropriate to function. A logical and expressive decoration must derive from the construction itself ".
When Labrouste came back to Paris, he opened atelier (the architectural studio and office) which promoted his rationalist ideas. His first major work, the Bibliothèque Ste-Geneviève in Paris, in 1839 (built 1843-1850). Labrouste was punished by The Beaux-Arts for his heresy. By doing this make he unable to accept any work for 10 years. Also along with his diploma of graduation because the lack of intention or will to keep the school discipline. Labrouste was assuming to be directly disobeying the school rule which counted to be seriously misbehavior action.
The Bibliothèque Ste-Geneviève is the first to use metal construction successfully shows the new idea of technology and architecture even though it doesn't
Be accepted by The Beaux-Arts. The Bibliothèque Ste-Geneviève library designed in Neo-renaissance style although it underlies metal structure relates to the cast iron architecture. The exterior use masonry structure but the interior use delicate, light, cast-iron structure. The library has 2 stories: The first floor occupies the stacks at the left, book storage and office space at the right and the center has stairway leading to reading room. The main reading room is huge; it divided half by 16 beautiful cast-iron columns which are very slender and high. The barrel vaulted plaster at the ceiling supported by elaborated semi-circular trusses, also in cast-iron and decorate with leaves and flowers pattern. Between 1854 and 1875 he created the iron-glass interior of the reading room at the Bibliothèque Nationale.
In my opinion, in...