Laddering

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  • Topic: Tiffany & Co., The Reynolds and Reynolds Company, Soft drink
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  • Published : February 23, 2013
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Laddering Tool

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Product Laddering Means to end Approach
A way to derive the consumer insights and look for opportunities in the market

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In the factory we make cosmetics In the drugstore we sell hope. ~ Charles Revson, Founder of Revlon

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There are always 2 sides And They Are Not The Same Thing.

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There are always 2 sides And They Are Not The Same Thing. What you sell!

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There are always 2 sides And They Are Not The Same Thing. What you sell!

What the customers buy!
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What you sell: Fragrance

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What you sell: Fragrance

What people buy: Feeling attractive

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Bulgari Sensual

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What you sell: Sneakers and Sportswear

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What you sell: Sneakers and Sportswear

What people buy: Ability to overcome anything

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Nike Just do it.

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What you sell: Ready to eat food

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What you sell: Ready to eat food

What people buy: Convenience in an overly inconvenient world

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7 Eleven When you are hungry

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What they sell: Performance car

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What they sell: Performance car

What people buy: The ultimate status car

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Ferrari

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What they sell: Ice Cream

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What they sell: Ice Cream

What people buy: Perfect indulgence

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Haagen Dazs The Longer Lasting Pleasure

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Consider a consumer purchasing a car.
The car has various features or attributes, e.g. a turbocharged V6 motor, two doors, leather upholstery, etc. Each attribute has particular consequences (negative and/or positive), as consumer sees it.

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The motor lets him out accelerate many other cars on the highway (a positive consequence in his eyes), but also can cost more to operate (a negative consequence).

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These consequences are meaningful in light of that person’s values. Positively, the turbocharged V6 helps him achieve his value of feeling strong and powerful, a master of his own fate. On the negative side, the higher cost of operation with this motor, though, interferes with his value of seeing himself as a responsible husband and father, a selfless provider for his family.

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ME

My Family

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Laddering is based on a means-end theory
Identify the product attributes that draw out preference within a particular product class category. The attributes of products and the consequences (both positive and negative) that are associated with usage are the “means”.

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The “ends” are the desired outcomes expressed in terms of the consumer’s personal values. These values are assumed to be reached through the consequences. (Reynolds & Gutman, 1988; Myers, 1996). Consumers assumedly choose actions that produce desired consequences. Therefore, consumers learn to associate specific consequences with specific product attributes and this knowledge drives them to choose products that have the relevant attributes to help them achieve their desired goals.

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Consumers’ product knowledge is organized in a hierarchy with concrete thoughts linked to more abstract thoughts in a chain progressing from a means to an end. Thus, the more concrete features or characteristics of a product, the attributes (A), are...
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