The Ladder of Inference Model from Action Science is a representation of different ways that individuals make sense of and deal with everyday events. Individuals select and process certain aspects of events, and introduce elements from this processing into their thinking, feeling, and interactions. These elements include inferences, attributions, and evaluations that may have considerable error relative to objective observations of the same events. The further an individual moves or extrapolates from the actual, original data (i.e., the verbatim words spoken and observable actions made by individuals), the greater is the potential error. This model can be useful in helping individuals reduce such errors and the resulting interpersonal problems.
We can consider various numbers of steps on the ladder of inference, starting with the data (the actual statements and actions) and moving progressively further away from the data, e.g., as illustrated in the following steps (read from bottom to top):
5. EVALUATION (of the other person's statements and/or actions)
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