Lab Report on Smoking

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Abstract
An attitude is a representation of an individual's degree of like or dislike for an act, object or evaluation. This report aims to conclude whether there is a difference between female and male attitudes towards smoking. It is hypothesised that females will have a more positive attitude towards smoking. Questionnaires using a 5 point likert scale will be utilised to measure each participants’ attitude towards smoking through their responses. Results stated there is no significant difference between genders when scores were placed through an independent t-test. It is concluded that more research onto attitudes towards smoking and with a larger sample is needed to draw reliable results, which can then in turn be used to help understand ways to prevent smoking and associated health issues.

Lab Report on Measuring Attitudes of Male and Female Participants Towards Smoking
An attitude is an association between an act or object and an evaluation, this can effect whether we view something positively or negatively and can be applied to various issues including judging people, politics, morals and religion (Fazio et al., 2008). An attitude is theorised to comprise of three different components, they are the cognitive component, emotional component and behavioural component (Gazzaniga et al., 2010). Attitude cannot be directly measured, however peoples’ approach on a range of life issues can be ascertained through surveys and questionnaires, and converted into data. In some communities, gender plays a large role in smoking and the population’s attitudes. This is seen particularly when there are religious influences or certain gender specific values; Bush et al. (2003), concluded smoking within Pakistan was commonly accepted, where a large number of the population being Muslim or Hindu. Amongst Bangladeshi men, it was mainly associated with socialising, sharing, and male identity. Though among women, smoking was coupled with stigma and shame. Research conducted on gender specific influences on smoking, quitting and attempting to quit by Pirie et al. (2004), reported that more women than men were current smoking (26.5 vs. 22.6 percent), but quitting attempts, successful and unsuccessful, were equally common. Other past research supports that in the early 20th century, women were less likely to smoke due to social norms and widespread disapproval of women smoking, but as time progressed into the mid 20th century, growing social acceptance of women's smoking contributed to increased smoking by women (Waldron, 1991). One particular study conducted on teen-age boys and girls found social meaning and external pressures were a large influence on participants, with gender and socioeconomic status being a frequent factors in terms of smoking prevalence (Clayton, 1991). There is little other research onto the gender differences towards smoking attitudes. This could be due to the fact that attitude is more linked to individual behaviours; such as varied understanding of social norms, overall knowledge of smoking and its health related issues, and general enjoyment/experiences when undertaking smoking in various environments, rather than gender specific differences (Waldron, 1991; Bush, et al., 2003; Slovic, 2010). In this instance, if we can change attitudes we may change behaviour and be able to prevent smoking related health issues and deaths.

The aim of this report is to find the difference between male and female attitudes towards smoking. To research whether there was a gender difference in attitudes, the study examined the attitude of university students presented with statements about a range of smoking-related issues including social, financial and health elements. It was hypothesised that females were to have a more positive attitude towards smoking than males.

Method
Participants
The participants were 20 CFP students whom are of first or second year at La Trobe University, Melbourne. Participants...
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