Lab Report by Shyam Bhandari

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As we go to computer lab our teacher taught us about various hardware components. The term hardware refers to those parts which we can touch or feel. These are the physical parts of the computer. For example:-motherboard, hard disk, RAM, SMPS, casing, etc. So I have described below what our sir has taught us in hardware lab about different hardware pheprials: Computer case:

A computer case is also known as a "computer chassis", "tower", "base unit" or simply "case". Computer cases hold the components that make up a computer system, minus the monitor, mouse and keyboard which are separate. Computer cases come in many sizes and models to suit any build, with options for convenience and customization. computer cases are made up different parts. Computer case are made up different metals. They are found in different shapes and size.

Fig: computer Case

Motherboard:

* The mother board is printed circuit board.
* The most important part of a PC is the motherboard. It holds: * the processor chip
* memory chips
* chips that handle input/output (I/O)
* the expansion slots for connecting peripherals
* Some chips are soldered onto the motherboard (permanent), and some are removable (so they can be upgraded). * Collectively, all these chips that reside on the motherboard are known as the motherboard's chipset.

Fig:motherboard
CPU(Central Processing Unit):
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is responsible for interpreting and executing most of the commands from the computer'shardware and software.The CPU could be considered the "brains" of the computer. The CPU is Also Known asprocessor, computer processor, microprocessor, central processor, "the brains of the computer". A modern CPU is usually small and square with many short, rounded, metallic connectors on its underside. Some older CPUs have pins instead metallic connectors. The CPU attaches directly to a CPU "socket" (or sometimes a "slot") on the motherboard. The CPU is inserted into the socket pin-side-down and a small lever helps to secure the processor.

Fig :Cpu
Hard Disk:
A magnetic disk on which we can store computer data. The term hard is used to distinguish it from a soft, or floppy, disk. Hard disks hold more data and are faster than floppy disks. A hard disk, for example, can store anywhere from 10 to more than 100 gigabytes, whereas most floppies have a maximum storagecapacity of 1.4 megabytes. How does the hard disk store data?

On each of the platters there is a thin layer of magnetic film. Data storage on hard disks is very similar to that of a cassette tape. Data is stored in many 1's and 0's. These binary digits are arranged in different ways to represent different characters. When these are read back by the head the data is retrieved and processed.

Fig: Hard Disk

Measuring the Speed of a Hard Disk
There are various ways of measuring the speed of the hard disk. The main ones are the maximum data transfer rate, the spindle rotation speed and the seek time. Maximum Transfer Rate - This is the highest amount of data that can be transferred per second. Common forms of hard disks come with an ATA format. the speed rating of an ATA100 disk would be 100Mb/s. Likewise a ATA66 disk would be able to transfer a maximum of 66Mb/s. Spindle Rotation Speed - The rotation speed of the disk really is the basis of the other two factors of hard disk speed. The faster the rotation speed, the more data can be written per second and the quicker it is to find the correct data on the platter. Seek Time - The seek time of a hard disk is the average time it takes for the disk to find the data you need on the platters. A fast spinning, highly accurate and responsive disk will have a shorter seek time and will perform much better, especially when the data is scattered around the disk. Disk Fragmentation

All versions of Windows come with a disk defragmenter. But what exactly is fragmentation? As you use your computer...
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