Lab Experiment 6 : Chemical and Physical Properties

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Lab Experiment 6 : Chemical and Physical Properties

Lab Experiment 6 : Chemical and Physical Properties

Purpose:

The purpose of this lab is to test substances and to determine the physical and chemical properties of substances.

Material

matches, glassbeaker 100 mL, burner-fuel, goggles-Safety, stirring rod - Glass 1 test tube(5), 13 x 100 mm in bubble bag, test-tube-clamp-holder test-tube- cleaning-brush,well-Plate-24, well-plate, litmus paper, blue - in bag 2"x 3" 1 litmus paper, red - in bag 2"x 3", Copper (II) Carbonate in Vial, 1/2 Full 1 Copper (II) Nitrate Crystals in vial, Copper Metal - 6-8 pc. in bag 2"x 3" 1 Hydrochloric Acid, 6 M - 4 mL in dropper bottle, 1 Magnesium Metal pieces - 6-8 in bag 2"x 3", 1 Magnesium Oxide powder - 0.5 g, 2 pipet, empty short stem - labeled "HCL," & "NaOH", 1 Sodium Chloride in vial – full, 1 Sodium Hydroxide, 6 M - 4 mL in dropper bottle,1 Zinc, Mossy - 6-8 Pieces, Bag 2"x 3"

Procedure:

1. Half-fill one well of a 24-well plate with 6 M HCl and half-fill a second well of the
24-well plate with 6 M NaOH. Suck up these chemicals into their labeled pipets for
later use.

2. Perform the following steps on each of the substances to be tested. Complete all tests of one substance and record your observations before proceeding to the next.

a. Place 4 small test tubes into wells of the 24-well plate.
b. Place small amounts of the substance to be tested in each of the four micro test
tubes.

3. First test tube:

a. Examine and record color and odor.

b. Light the burner fuel wick. Grasp the test tube with the holder and heat the sample by slowly moving it just above the flame. Observe the effect of heat on the substance. Note the evolution of any gases.

c. Allow the test tube to cool before storing or the well plate plastic may melt.

4. Second test tube:

a. Add enough cold water to 1/4 fill the test tube above the sample material. Stir
with the glass stirring rod. Observe the solubility of the substance in cold water.

b. Light the burner fuel wick. Grasp the test tube with the holder and heat the
sample by slowly moving it just above the flame, making sure the flame is
directed toward the top of the water and the test tube’s open end is not pointed
at anyone. Gently heat the water just to boiling. Observe the solubility in hot
water.

c. Tear off approximately 1/2-cm pieces of both red and blue litmus paper.

d. Allow the solution to cool, and using the glass stirring rod, transfer a drop of the
solution onto a piece of litmus paper. Record the results. Clean the stirring rod.

5. Third test tube:

a. Add a few pipet drops of HCl (hydrochloric acid) to the sample and stir. NOTE:
Use the test tube holder\clamp as some reactions are exothermic, i.e. the test
tube may get very hot. Record any apparent reaction or solubility. Clean the
stirring rod.

6. Fourth test tube: Add a few pipet drops of NaOH (sodium hydroxide) to the sample. Stir.

Record any apparent reaction or solubility. Clean the stirring rod.

7. Thoroughly clean and dry all 4 test tubes. Repeat Steps 2 though 6 with the next substance.

Experimental Results

Substance: Zn
Color: Grey
Odor: None
Effect of Heat: decreases content curled in with lighter color Solub. Or Reaction w/cold H20: No reaction observed / not soluble Solub. Or Reaction w/ hot H20: Prolonged boiling from retained heat/ non soluble Litmus test: None observed

Dilute HCI: positive reaction resulting in the formation of gas, carbonation, and darkened Dilute NaOH: creates foggy substance and blackens solid

Substance: Cu
Color: Copper
Odor: None noted
Effect of Heat: Turned black
Solub. Or Reaction w/cold H20: not soluble
Solub. Or Reaction w/ hot H20: not soluble
Litmus test: None...
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