Lab Enzymes

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Introduction

How does changing the surroundings of enzymes affect their reaction rate? The purpose of the experiment is to determine how different abiotic conditions affect the rate at which enzymes accelerate/cause reactions In this lab students measured the height of the foam after catalysis between catalase (enzyme) and 7 other (solutions) to determine which solution had the fastest reaction rate.. The control variable of the experiment would be the solution of only hydrogen peroxide, water, and catalase. The independent variables of the experiment were the abiotic factors such as PH level, temperature, and the amount of salt within the environment. The dependent variable of the experiment would be the height of the foam(product) after each change in environment. If I change the environment of the catalyst by adding high sodium, low sodium, and very low sodium into three individual test tubes , and measured the height of the foam then low sodium would have the highest reaction rate, this is because changes in the concentration of salt alter the electrostatic interactions between charged amino acids, so if salt is added the ability of enzymes to bind to the substrate is altered and the enzyme may or may not be able to bind to it. If I change the environment of the catalyst by adding room temperature , boiling , and freezing cold Solutions into three individual test tubes and measured the height of the foam then freezing cold Solution would have the highest rate of reaction this is because the higher the temperature the weaker the hydrogen bond. If I change the environment of the catalyst by adding acidic and basic solution into two individual test tubes and measured the height of the foam then basic would have the highest rate of reaction because the PH level also alters the electrostatic interactions doing the same as salt, when PH level is decreased the negative charge is neutralized, hydrogen bind to the unoccupied pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom of the amino groups giving them a positive charge.

Key terms

Enzyme-Biological substances(protein) that act as Catalysts and help complex reactions occur where.

Catalyst- a substrate that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by reducing energy needed to start it.

Substrate- a biological molecule the enzymes will work on

Catalysis- When a substrate is changed

Product- A substrate after being through catalysis, and let go

Catalase- An enzyme found in most living cells that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.

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Materials and Procedure

Materials- 4 ML of different pH solutions/2 ML catalase/Different salt solutions/1 ML hydrogen peroxide solution

Apparatus-8 test tubes/Test tube rack/metric ruler/Syringe

Procedures
Students will be given materials such as five test tubes, a test tube rack,and a metric ruler;student will also collect solutions premixed with 2ML of catalyse such as 6ML of different 3 salt solutions, 6ML of 3 different PH level solution, and 6ML of 3 different temperature solutions. The solutions will be placed within the 8 tubes

Next students will add 1ML of Hydrogen Peroxide to each test tube Students will observe reactions to the solutions after being mixed After a certain amount of time students will measure the amount of foam is within the test tube from where the foam starts to where it ends. Observations

The control foam height was at 10MM at around 4min, exactly half the value of cold solution at 4min which was at about 19MM at the time; cold solution had a much faster reaction rate then the control, the boiled solution was at 0MM at 4min. The acid solution was at 0ML at 4min and the base solution was at 7MM. At 4min.The 1.5% salinity solution was at 9MM at 4min and had the highest foam height compared to the other salinity solutions such as 3MM for 1% and 5MM for 3% at 4min. Another thing I’ve noticed was that a solution was...
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