Lab 3: Cell Structure and Function

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3.Describe the differences between animal and plant cells.
Although plant and animal cells both have mitochondria, cytoplasm, and ribosomes they differ in many ways. Animal cells do not have a cell wall and are round with irregular shapes. Centrioles are also present in all animal cells, as well as most eukaryotic cells. Plant cells only have centrioles if they are in the lower plant species. Both types of cells have vacuoles, but their functions are quite different. The purpose of vacuoles in a plant cell is to store water and maintain the structure of a cell, whereas in animal cells they are used to store water, waste, and ions. Animal cells have one or more small vacuoles, whereas plant cells have one, large central vacuole. Plant cells are the only type of cells that contain plastids which contain pigments that are used in the photosynthesis process. Chloroplast is another organelle that is found in plant cells and are responsible for the plant's immune response. Both cells have an assortment of organelles, each with various functions that make life as we know it possible.

4.Which of the following structures are present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes have DNA as their genetic material, each also contains RNA. Both types of cells are covered by a cell membrane and are made of the same basic chemicals: proteins, fats, minerals, and carbohydrates. Ribosomes are responsible for the synthesis proteins and are also present in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

5.Where is genetic material found in plant cells?
DNA is the genetic material found in the nucleus of plant cells. Mitochondria contain their own separate DNA as well.

6.Mitochondria are the only organelles that contain their own DNA (circular) and have a double membrane. Why do you think this might be so? Mitochondria contains circular DNA. This type of DNA is typically found in viruses and bacteria. Bacteria were present billions of years...
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