Insert the chemical symbol in the answer blank for each of the following elements.
___O______ 1. oxygen
___C______ 2. carbon
___K______ 3. potassium
___I______ 4. iodine
___H______ 5. hydrogen
___N______ 6. nitrogen
____Ca_____ 7. calcium
____Na_____ 8. sodium
____P_____ 9. phosphorus
____Mg_____ 10. magnesium
____Cl_____ 11. chloride
____Fe_____ 12. iron
In the space below, list the chemicals (above) from the MOST abundant in the human body to the LEAST abundant. Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, magnesium, iodine, iron
For the statements below, highlight the correct word or fill in the blank as indicated:
1. A cation is an atom that has (lost/gained) an electron, giving it a (positive/negative) electrical charge.
2. An anion is an atom that has (lost/gained) an electron, giving it a (positive/negative) electrical charge.
3. A _electrolyte_ is an ionic compound that, when dissolved in water, dissociates into component ions other than H+ and OH-.
4. Ions that conduct an electrical current in solution are called ___electrolytes______.
5. A hydrogen atom has (one/zero) proton(s), (one/zero) electron(s), and (one/zero) neutron(s).
6. A hydrogen ion has (one/zero) proton(s), (one/zero) electron(s), and (one/zero) neutron(s).
7. Acids are substances that (release/accept) hydrogen ions.
8. Bases are substances that (release/ accept) hydrogen ions.
9. The bicarbonate ion is an important (acid/base) in the human body.
10. Because water molecules have a positive pole and a negative pole, we consider the water molecule to be a _polar__ molecule.
11. Water molecules bond with other water molecules by a weak _hydrogen__ bond.
12. _buffer_ are substances that resist abrupt and large swings in the pH of body fluids by releasing hydrogen ions when the pH starts to (rise/drop) and by binding hydrogen ions when the pH starts to (rise/drop). Using the words below, identify the indicated areas of the pH scale:
Using the choices below, describe the substances listed.
A. acidB. baseC. neutral
___a___ 3. vinegar
__b_____4. distilled water
__b_____ 5. sodium hydroxide
____a___ 6. urine
____c___ 7. saliva
____b___ 8. bicarbonate
_____a__ 9. gastric juice
____a___ 10. carbonic acid
List the four categories of organic compounds found in humans. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, fats.
All organic compounds that occur in humans contain _carbon and hydrogen_.
Match the items below to the descriptions:
A. amino acids
D. fatty acids
__g___1. Building blocks of carbohydrates
__e___ 2. Building blocks of fat
__a___ 3. Building blocks of protein
__f___ 4. Building blocks of nucleic acids
__h___ 5. Cellular cytoplasm is primarily composed of this substance
__g_ __ 6. The single most important fuel source for body cells
__d___ 7. Not soluble in water
__b___ 8. Contain C, H, and O in the ratio CH2O
__d___ 9. Contain C, H, and O but have relatively small amounts of oxygen
_a____ 10. __h_____ 11. These building blocks contain N in addition to C, H, and O.
__f___ 12. Contain P in addition to C, H, O, and N
__c___ 13. Used to insulate the body and found in all cell membranes
__h___ 14. Primary components of meat and cheese
__b___ 15. Primary components of bread and pasta
__h___ 16. Primary components of egg yolk and peanut oil
__h___ 17. Include collagen and hemoglobin
__c___ 18. Class that usually includes cholesterol
Using the key choices, identify the compounds pictured below: