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Krashen Hypotheses

By | September 2010
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Stephen Krashen
1941-Present - Born in Chicago in 1941.
- Spent two years in the Peace Corps in Ethiopia where he taught eighth grade English and science. - Krashen pursued a Ph.D. in Linguistics at the University of California, Los Angeles, culminating with his 1972 dissertation "Language and the Left Hemisphere." - Took up a Ph.D. in Linguistics at the University of California, Los Angeles in 1972. - Joined the USC School of Education in 1994.

- Published over 350 papers and books, and has presented keynote and plenary addresses at the National Association for Bilingual Education, and many other conferences. - A professor of Linguistics at the CUNY Graduate Center and the Linguistics Department of the University of Southern California.

Description of Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition

Krashen's theory of second language acquisition consists of five main hypotheses:

The Acquisition-Learning hypothesis distinction is the most fundamental of all the hypotheses in Krashen's theory and the most widely known among linguists and language practitioners.

Acquisition | Learning
implicit, subconscious | explicit, conscious
informal situations | formal situations
uses grammatical 'feel' | uses grammatical rules
depends on attitude |depends on aptitude
stable order of acquisition | simple to complex order of learning

According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second language performance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'. The 'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the product of a subconscious process very similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their first language. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act.

The 'learned system' or 'learning' is the product of formal instruction and it comprises a conscious process which results in conscious...

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