Konflik Etnis

Topics: Afghanistan, Pashtun people, Kabul Pages: 7 (2427 words) Published: March 24, 2009
Konflik etnis-Afganistan
Ethnic differences are strongest when other significant differences—religious, ideological, economic, geographic, linguistic—reinforce distinctions between one ethnic group and another. Perbedaan etnik yang kuat ketika lainnya signifikan perbedaan agama, ideologis, ekonomi, geografis, linguistik-memperkuat distinctions antara satu suku dan lainnya. Although Afghanistan is a complex country in terms of ethnic composition, the importance of ethnicity in explaining conflict has varied significantly throughout its history. Meskipun Afganistan adalah negara yang rumit dalam hal komposisi etnis, pentingnya dalam menjelaskan konflik etnis yang berbeda-beda signifikan sepanjang sejarah. In the original state named Afghanistan, dating back to 1747, the Pashtun ethnic group constituted an overwhelming majority. Di negara bernama Afghanistan, dating kembali ke 1747, yang dilantik Pashtun suku besar yang mayoritas. Until the late nineteenth century, Afghanistan was a fragile confederation of Pashtun tribes, and the word "Afghan" was used as a synonym for Pashtun. Hingga akhir abad kesembilanbelas, Afganistan adalah rapuh konfederasi dari suku Pashtun, dan kata "Afghan" digunakan sebagai sinonim untuk Pashtun. As part of a nation-building project early in the twentieth century, it increasingly came to imply "citizen of Afghanistan." Sebagai bagian dari bangsa-proyek pembangunan di awal abad kedua puluh, ia datang untuk semakin menyiratkan "warga Afganistan." The borders of the territory that now form Afghanistan were established toward the end of the nineteenth century, when the British and Russian empires were competing for control of the region. Dengan batas-batas wilayah yang sekarang formulir Afganistan didirikan menuju akhir abad kesembilanbelas, ketika Inggris dan Rusia telah Empires bersaing untuk kontrol daerah. The Pashtun population was split, one part living in British India and the Pashtun majority in Afghanistan being reduced to around half the total population. Pashtun penduduk yang telah terbelah, satu bagian yang tinggal di Inggris dan India yang mayoritas Pashtun di Afghanistan yang dikurangi menjadi sekitar setengah jumlah penduduk. During his monarchy, Abdur Rahman Khan (reigned 1880' 1901) attempted to build a stronger, more modern state, less dependent on shifting tribal alliances. Selama monarki, Abdur Rahman Khan (reigned 1880-1901) berusaha untuk membangun yang lebih kuat, lebih modern negara, kurang tergantung pada perubahan suku aliansi. Trying to establish authority throughout the country, particularly where ethnic minorities were dominant, the king battled several contentious groups, with especially harsh implications for the Hazara and Nuristani peoples. Mencoba untuk mendirikan kekuasaan di seluruh negara, terutama dimana etnis minoritas yang dominan, raja battled beberapa kelompok yg suka, terutama dengan tajam implikasi untuk Hazara dan Nuristani bangsa. Whereas Afghanistan's majority are Sunni Muslims, the Hazara are Shiʿa, and the Nuristani practice their own religion. Sedangkan dari Afganistan yang mayoritas Muslim Sunni, yang Hazara adalah sebuah ʿ Shi, dan Nuristani amalan agama mereka sendiri. Religion was used to legitimize warfare and ethnic persecution. Agama digunakan untuk melegitimasi perang dan penganiayaan etnis. Abdur Rahman Khan also forcibly moved large numbers of noncomplying Pashtuns to minority-dominated areas in the north, thus forming people who were formerly a threat into an effective instrument for strengthening his rule in non-Pashtun areas. Abdur Rahman Khan juga dipindahkan memaksa sejumlah besar noncomplying Pashtuns ke-didominasi minoritas di wilayah utara, sehingga membentuk orang-orang yang sebelumnya merupakan ancaman menjadi instrumen yang efektif untuk memperkuat peraturan itu di daerah-daerah non-Pashtun. Pashtun nomads were granted privileges such as access to pastures in the Hazara-inhabited central region. Pashtun nomads...
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