Kober Lab

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  • Topic: Spinal cord, Nervous system, Neuron
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4015 Lab – PNS, Spinal Cord and Spinal Reflexes

Activity 1 – Nerves

Type the numbers, in the space provided, of the structures pointed out on the diagram of a cross section of a nerve in your lab book with the following terms:

6 axon
12 endoneurium
1 epineurium
2 fascicle
7 motor ending
10 myelin sheath
9 neurilemma
11 node of Ranvier
3 perineurium
5 peripheral nerve
8 Schwann cell
4 sensory receptors

What is the difference between a nerve and a neuron? They are both completely different a nerve is a cord like organ that is composed of many nerve fibers in the connective tissue and a neuron is a nerve cell. They are one in the same but are completely different.

What is a nerve fiber? Addition of a nerve cell

What are the epineurium, perineurium and endoneurium made of? Cell fibers in the connective tissue and Squamish epithelium cells

Activity 2 - Spinal Cord

Match the numbers of the structures pointed out on the diagram of the human spinal cord in your lab book with the following terms:

_9__ anterior horn_10__ anterior median fissure
_1__ central canal__3_ dorsal root
_4__ dorsal root ganglion_8__ lateral horn
_7__ posterior horn_5__ spinal nerve
_2__ ventral root_6__ white matter

Where is the gray matter located in the spinal cord? Layer of tissue in the central nervous system

Where is the white matter? Tissue that is on the superficial of the gray matter of the spinal cord.

What makes the white matter white and what structures of the neuron are predominant in white matter? Capillaries in tissue make the white matter look white to the naked eye. The largest structure of the spinal cord white matter is myelinated axons.

Activity 3 – Spinal Nerves and Nerve Plexuses

In the text and APR there are images of the human vertebral column. Between each pair of vertebrae exits a spinal nerve. Find the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral vertebrae and the spinal nerves associated with each. Note the number of cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral spinal nerves.

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there? 31

How are spinal nerves named? How do the names compare to the names of the vertebrae? Determines from which neuron it is, motor or sensory.

How long is a spinal nerve? 43-45

What is the collective name of the three layers that cover the spinal cord (the same coverings are found around the brain)? meninges

Match the following structures with their descriptions:

a. arachnoid mater
b. cauda equina
c. conus medullaris
d. dura mater
e. filum terminale
f. pia mater

C_1. End of spinal cord at vertebra L2
E_2. Fibrous extension of the pia mater that anchors the end of the spinal cord to the posterior coccyx B_3. Collection of spinal nerves traveling inferiorly from the end of the spinal cord before exiting between the vertebrae A_4. The middle meninx; looks like spider webbing

F_5. The meninx that adheres tightly to the outside of the spinal cord D_6. The outermost covering of the spinal cord and brain; is fibrous and tough

The spinal cord has a somewhat larger diameter in the lumbar region and the cervical region. Why? Lumbar because its supports larger things

What is a nerve plexus? Intersecting nerves
What spinal nerves have fibers that enter into the brachial plexus? Lateral posterior and medial cords

What are the main peripheral nerves that branch off the brachial plexus? Medial Radial and Ulna
Which spinal plexus innervates the diaphragm? Brachial plexus

Damage to which peripheral nerve may result in respiratory dysfunction? Axon

Numbness of the fingers would be associated with injury to which spinal plexus? Brachial

Match the numbers of the structures pointed out on the diagram in your lab book with the following terms:

_8__ brachial plexus
_4__ cauda equina
_1_ cervical enlargement
_6__ cervical plexus
_11_ coccygeal nerves
_3__ conus...
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