KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND ICT
The Emerging role of Technology on Knowledge Management Practices
Technology is the usage and knowledge of tools, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization. It is the study of something, or the branch of knowledge of a discipline. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include construction technology, medical technology, or state-of-the-art technology or high technology. Technologies can also be exemplified in a material product, for example an object can be termed state of the art. ICT, acronym for Information and Communications Technology consists of all technical means used to handle information and aid communication, including computer and network hardware as well as necessary software. In other words, ICT consists of IT as well as telephony, broadcast media, and all types of audio and video processing and transmission. As it pertains to organizations within enterprises, IT represents an operational group that helps solve such problems as those related to data, information and knowledge capture, persistence, processing, brokering, discovery and rendering. Such organizations can be as small as one or two people that can be shared between multiple small businesses and those as large as multi-billion dollar structures. In the other hand knowledge management comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enable adoption of insights and experiences. Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge, either embodied in individuals or embedded in organizational processes or practice. Many large companies and non-profit organizations have resources dedicated to internal KM efforts, often as a part of their 'business strategy', 'information technology', or 'human resource management' departments. Several consulting companies also exist that provide strategy and advice regarding KM to these organizations. Knowledge Management efforts typically focus on organizational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, integration and continuous improvement of the organization. KM efforts overlap with organizational learning, and may be distinguished from that by a greater focus on the management of knowledge as a strategic asset and a focus on encouraging the sharing of knowledge. KM efforts can help individuals and groups to share valuable organizational insights, to reduce redundant work, to avoid reinventing the wheel per se, to reduce training time for new employees, to retain intellectual capital as employee’s turnover in an organization, and to adapt to changing environments and markets. Many organisations see knowledge sharing as a better description of what they are about than knowledge management. Advantages of “knowledge sharing” include its common sense comprehensibility, along with a certain degree of interactivity implicit in any sharing. Overall, whatever the term employed to describe it, knowledge management is increasingly seen, not merely as the latest management fashion, but as signalling the development of a more organic and holistic way of understanding and exploiting the role of knowledge in the processes of managing and doing work, and an authentic guide for individuals and organisations in coping with the increasingly complex and shifting environment of the modern economy. The Information Communication Technology (ICT) is considered the driving force behind the long unprecedented economic growth period of the last decade. It provided the infrastructure for economic development, helped create the knowledge society, contributed to innovation and created value for the economy. More importantly, it brought the world closer together by improving the dissemination of knowledge, accelerating research, stimulating innovation and facilitating collaboration. As we have all witnessed, the advent...
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