Modes of Knowledge Conversion
Knowledge Developer's Skill Set
Knowledge Codification in the KM System Life Cycle
What Does Knowledge Codification Involve?
Converting “tacit knowledge” into “explicit usable form” Converting “undocumented” information into “documented” information Representing and organizing knowledge before it is accessed It is making institutional knowledge visible, accessible, and usable for decision making Benefits of Knowledge Codification
Instruction/training—promoting training of junior personnel based on captured knowledge of senior employees Prediction—inferring the likely outcome of a given situation and flashing a proper warning or suggestion for corrective action Diagnosis—addressing identifiable symptoms of specific causal factors Planning/scheduling—mapping out an entire course of action before any steps are taken The knowledge developer should note the following points before initiating knowledge codification: Recorded knowledge is often difficult to access (because it is either fragmented or poorly organized). Diffusion of new knowledge is too slow.
Knowledge is nor shared, but hoarded (this can involve political implications). Often knowledge is not found in the proper form.
Often knowledge is not available at the correct time when it is needed. Often knowledge is not present in the proper location where it should be present. Often the knowledge is found to be incomplete.
What organizational goals will the
codified knowledge serve?
Why is the knowledge useful?
How would one codify knowledge?
Modes of Knowledge Conversion
Conversion from tacit to tacit knowledge produces socialization where knowledge developer looks for experience in case of knowledge capture. Conversion from tacit to explicit knowledge involves externalizing, explaining or clarifying tacit knowledge via analogies, models, or metaphors. Conversion from explicit to tacit knowledge involves internalizing (or fitting explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge. Conversion from explicit to explicit knowledge involves combining, categorizing, reorganizing or sorting different bodies of explicit knowledge to lead to new knowledge. Nonaka's Model of Knowledge Creation & Transformation (SECI Model) Codifying Knowledge An organization must focus on the following before
What organizational goals will the codified knowledge serve? What knowledge exists in the organization that can address these goals?
How useful is the existing knowledge for codification?
How would someone codify knowledge?
Codifying tacit knowledge (in its entirety) in a knowledge base or repository is often difficult because it is usually developed and internalized in the minds of the human experts over a long period of time. Some Codification Tools
Visual representation of knowledge, not a repository
Identify strengths to exploit and missing knowledge gaps to fill Can be applied in Knowledge Capture
A straightforward directory that points people to where they can find certain expertise
Capture both explicit and tacit knowledge in documents and in experts’ heads
Knowledge Map (Relationships among Departments)
A popular knowledge map used in human resources is a skills planner in which employees are matched to jobs. Steps to build the map: A structure of the knowledge requirements should be developed. Knowledge required of specific jobs...