Knowledge Codification

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Knowledge Codification
 Modes of Knowledge Conversion
 Codifying Knowledge
 Codification Tools/Procedures
 Knowledge Maps
 Decision Table
 Decision Tree
 Frames
 Production Rules
 Case-Based Reasoning
 Knowledge-Based Agents
 Knowledge Developer's Skill Set
 Knowledge Requirements
 Skills Requirements

Knowledge Codification in the KM System Life Cycle

What Does Knowledge Codification Involve?
 Converting “tacit knowledge” into “explicit usable form”  Converting “undocumented” information into “documented” information  Representing and organizing knowledge before it is accessed  It is making institutional knowledge visible, accessible, and usable for decision making Benefits of Knowledge Codification

 Instruction/training—promoting training of junior personnel based on captured knowledge of senior employees  Prediction—inferring the likely outcome of a given situation and flashing a proper warning or suggestion for corrective action  Diagnosis—addressing identifiable symptoms of specific causal factors  Planning/scheduling—mapping out an entire course of action before any steps are taken The knowledge developer should note the following points before initiating knowledge codification:  Recorded knowledge is often difficult to access (because it is either fragmented or poorly organized).  Diffusion of new knowledge is too slow.

 Knowledge is nor shared, but hoarded (this can involve political implications).  Often knowledge is not found in the proper form.
 Often knowledge is not available at the correct time when it is needed.  Often knowledge is not present in the proper location where it should be present.  Often the knowledge is found to be incomplete.

Pre-KC Questions
 What organizational goals will the
codified knowledge serve?
 Why is the knowledge useful?
 How would one codify knowledge?
Modes of Knowledge Conversion
 Conversion from tacit to tacit knowledge produces socialization where knowledge developer looks for experience in case of knowledge capture.  Conversion from tacit to explicit knowledge involves externalizing, explaining or clarifying tacit knowledge via analogies, models, or metaphors.  Conversion from explicit to tacit knowledge involves internalizing (or fitting explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge.  Conversion from explicit to explicit knowledge involves combining, categorizing, reorganizing or sorting different bodies of explicit knowledge to lead to new knowledge. Nonaka's Model of Knowledge Creation & Transformation (SECI Model) Codifying Knowledge  An organization must focus on the following before

 What organizational goals will the codified knowledge serve?  What knowledge exists in the organization that can address these goals?
 How useful is the existing knowledge for codification?
 How would someone codify knowledge?
 Codifying tacit knowledge (in its entirety) in a knowledge base or repository is often difficult because it is usually developed and internalized in the minds of the human experts over a long period of time. Some Codification Tools

 Knowledge Map
 Decision Table
 Decision Tree
 Frames
 Production Rules
 Case-based Reasoning
 Knowledge-Based Agents

Knowledge Map
 Visual representation of knowledge, not a repository
 Identify strengths to exploit and missing knowledge gaps to fill  Can be applied in Knowledge Capture
 A straightforward directory that points people to where they can find certain expertise
 Capture both explicit and tacit knowledge in documents and in experts’ heads
Knowledge Map (Relationships among Departments)

Knowledge Map
A popular knowledge map used in human resources is a skills planner in which employees are matched to jobs. Steps to build the map: A structure of the knowledge requirements should be developed. Knowledge required of specific jobs...
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