Knee and Femur Distal End

Topics: Knee, Foot, Ankle Pages: 7 (1548 words) Published: November 17, 2013
Skeletal System Notes (Part 2)
1. Ribs are flat bone, meaning they provide protection w/o taking up a whole lot of space or being to stiff 2. Atlas (named after Greek god) first cervical vertebrae, has a weird shape to it. Atlas sits on top of Axis so it can pivot while supporting head. 3. Shoulder Girdle

a. Scapula
a.i. Spine (basically a ridge)
a.ii. Acromion Process
a.iii. Glenoid Fossa —where upper arm bone will attach…a fossa is an indentation or saucer-like. b. Clavicle—support and a strut
c. Humerus (upper-arm)
c.i. End with the ball is proximal, other end is distal
c.ii. Bicipital (intertubercular) groove—for bicep indicates anterior side c.iii. Medial & lateral epicondyles : epi= outside , condyle = bulge 4. Ulna: medial bone (has giant ‘claw’ on the top)…big bump=Olecranon process (elbow bone) – proximal end of the Ulna. The distal end of Ulna call styloid process like a ‘stylus’ 5. Radius: lateral bone, distal end just proximal to the anatomical sniff box 6. Carpals: bones of the wrist. There are 8 carpals; 2 rows of 4…some carpals in the “anatomical sniff box” 7. Metacarpals: One’s hand – numbered laterally to medially 8. Phalanges (UE—upper extremities = fingers instead of toes) 3 phalanges in fingers 2-5; only 2 phalange in finger 1 a. Singular for phalanges; phalanx

b. Bottom of Thumb= first proximal phalanx
c. Top of Thumb= first distal phalanx
9. Coxal Bones
a. Illium (big fan part at the top)
a.i. ASIS (Anterior Superior Illiac Spine)—it is the ‘point’ sticking of your hip a.ii. ACETABULUM: where the femur joins
a.iii. Crest
b. Ischium
b.i. Bottom part of butt (if you wiggle around in your chair you can feel it) c. Pubis
c.i. Pubic synthesis where two pubic bones attach
10. Femur
a. Longest bone in the body
b. Greater trochanter (commonly referred to as lower hip)
c. Medial & Lateral condyles – notches on distal end of bone..small ridge front end 11. Patella
a. Kneecap
b. There to provide bony congruency=means bones fit together well c. Patellas want to go laterally naturally, but that’s why femur distal end lateral side groove keeps patella in palce d. The patella is there as a pulley for mobility

12. “Reducing”=putting back a dislocated bone.
a. All reductions go: people scream, then scream a little louder, and then have the ‘ohhh that feels better moment.’ 13. Tibia
a. Tibial tuberosity – lil bump on proximal end of tibia (auscuslaughters disease deals with this bump)…the sides the bum is on is the anterior side. b. Medial malleolus (hook on ankle bone) at the distal end of the bone 14. Fibula

a. Head
b. Laterall malleolus forms together with the Tibia medial melleous to form a nice socket and is longer to protect the foot/whole unit. Has a sharp ridge on it 15. Foot and ankle….similar to hand and wrist

a. Tarsals instead of carpals
a.i. Tallus-one on top that makes up the joint
a.ii. Calcaneus – heel bone (biggest bone in ankle
b. Metatarsals
c. Phalanges (14) – lower extremities
d. Digit describes and entire finger or toe.

ClassNotes 9-25-13

1. Articulations
2. Classifications of Joints
a. Fibrous
a.i. Suture—stiches in the skull
a.ii. Syndesmosis (will talk about for a bit)— very strong, don’t tear very easily a.iii. Gomophosis—joints in teeth
b. Cartilaginous—cartilage sandwiched in between two pieces of bone b.i. Primary (e.g. developing long bones) – growing bone with open growth plate (epiphyseal disk), since growth plate basically made of cartilage…they don’t last forever and are only one bone b.ii. Secondary (e.g. vertebrae, pubic symphysis)

c. Synovial Joints (most popular in class) …requirements for synovial joints listed below c.i. Joint Cavity---since designed to move
c.ii. Articular Cartilage lubricated by synovial fluid…during rehab physicians try to promote synovial fluid and this is done through moving the joint. c.iii. Articular Capsule---holds everything in…basically a big ligament. Big ligamentous bag c.iv. Usually...
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