Physical Integrity Rights and Terrorism
* can states protect human rights when facing a terrorist threat- NO, because by doing so they become more exposed to terrorist attacks. * Effective counter-terrorism: curtailment of physical rights (Bush and Obama). * Extraordinary rendition
* Physically abusive interrogation practices
* Unchecked surveillance and wiretapping
* Recent findings suggest otherwise.
Types of Physical Integrity abuse and terrorism
* Four elements of physical integrity rights:
* Torture, political imprisonment w/o due process, disappearances, and extrajudicial killings by gov’t officials. * Goal: investigate how the use of high-quality data can produce results about counterterrorism policies. * Experiment:
* Measured four negative regression models for 142 countries from 1981 to 2004. * 2 dependent variables: incidents of borth domestic and international terrorist attacks occurring as reported by the Global Terrorism Database and incidents of international attacks. * Independent variables: measurements obtained from the human rights database. * In two of the models: governments that refrain from imprisoning citizens for political reasons experience less domestic and international terrorism.
Discussion: Problems and Strategies:
* Findings suggest that restricting human rights actually fuels terrorism. * Main issues concerning the quality and format of the data: * ITERATE: only includes transnational terrorist attacks where victims and targets are of different nationalities. (most terrorist attacks include victims of the same nationality). * Political Terror Scale and the Cingranelli-Richards data use annual reports from amnesty and the state department to code abuses on ordinal scales. * The use of this may mask substantial differences across country-years. * Ex: 3-value ordinal scale for torture (0- no allegations of torture, 1- b/w 1 and 50 allegations of torture, and 2- more than 50 allegations of torture (treats 51 and 51000 as identical). * Reports of these are published yearly and it is quite plausible that relationships between repression and terrorism operate over shorter time periods. * Issues concerning the relations between terrorist and authorities: * The increased level of data makes it difficult to address several questions: how quickly do terrorist groups organize and mount attacks in response to government repression. * Needs to adopt this strategy to analyze important questions between abuse and terrorism could produce more precise policy implications. * Local knowledge and expertise is needed to collect reliable and accurate data on terrorist attacks and human rights abuses.
U.S. Public Opinion on Torture, 2001-2009
* Many believe that during the Bush administration a majority of Americans supported torture if they were guranteed that it would prevent a terrorist attack. ( was a consensus by both political parties). * Using a new survey, apparently a majority of American was opposed to torture throughout the Bush presidency. * Even when euphemistic phrases were used, still yielded the same result. * Soldiers in Iraq also opposed the use of torture
* A public majority in support of torture did not appear until six months into Obama’s presidency. * Why did so many politicians misread the strong majority? * Misperception (“false consensus”): an individual mistakenly believes that his or her viewpoint represents the majority. * This false consensus pervades the opinions of those who supported torture, leading to this overestimate.
American Public Opinion on Torture
* Most of the debate over this subject has implied either directly or indirectly that the American public support torture. * Failed to include references to the actual...
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