Accommodation According to Piaget, the process of restructuring or modifying cognitive structures so that new information can fit into them more easily; this process works in tandem with assimilation Accommodation does not just take place in children; adults also experience this as well. When experiences introduce new information or information that conflicts with existing schemas, you must accomodate this new learning in order to ensure that what's inside your head conforms to what's outside in the real world. Aggression Behaviors that cause psychological or physical harm to another individual.
Individual who engage in affective aggression, defined as aggression that is unplanned and uncontrolled, tend to have lower IQs than people who display predatory aggression. Predatory aggression is defined as aggression that is controlled, planned and goal-oriented. Altruism Prosocial behaviors a person carries out without considering his or her own safety or interests.
Altruism is one aspect of what social psychologists refer to as prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior refers to any action that benefits other people, no matter what the motive or how the giver benefits from the action. Assimilation According to Piaget, the process whereby new cognitive elements are fitted in with old elements or modified to fit more easily; this process works in tandem with accommodation.
Assimilation is the easiest method because it does not require a great deal of adjustment. Through this process, we add new information to our existing knowledge base, sometimes reinterpreting these new experiences so that they will fit in with previously existing information. Conditioned response (CR) In classical conditioning, a response elicited by some previously neutral stimulus that occurs as a result of pairing the neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
In classical conditioning, the conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. For example, let's suppose that the smell of food is an unconditioned stimulus, a feeling of hunger in response the the smell is a unconditioned response, and a the sound of a whistle is the conditioned stimulus. The conditioned response would be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle. Conditioned stimulus (CS) In classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response.
In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. Fixation A state in which a person remains attached to objects or activities more appropriate for an earlier stage of psychosexual development.
A fixation occurs when an issue or conflict in a psychosexual stage remains unresolved, leaving the individual focused on this stage and unable to move onto the next. Individuals with an oral fixation may have problems with drinking, smoking, eating or nail biting. Flooding A therapy for phobias in which clients are exposed, with their permission, to the stimuli most frightening to them. Flooding is a technique used with phobias. The therapist tries to keep the person calm while exposure to the feared stimulus occurs. It's assumed that the longer the person can stay calm the more likely the feared response will be extinguished Internalization According to Vygotsky, the process through which children absorb knowledge from the social context.
Internalization of norms might take place following religious conversion, or in the process of the more general, moral conversion of the person. Internalization is also often associated with learning (for example, learning ideas or skills) and making use of it from then on. The notion of internalization therefore also finds currency in applications in education, learning, and training, and in business and management thinking. Morality A system of beliefs and values that...
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