Kiss Notes : Production of Materials

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HSC Chemistry Topic 1

PRODUCT ON of MATERIALS
What is this topic about?
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of: 1. POLYMERS FROM PETROCHEMICALS & BIOMASS

2. ALTERNATIVE FUELS - ETHANOL & THE ALKANOLS 3. REDOX CHEMISTRY & BATTERIES 4. RADIOACTIVITY & ITS USES ...all in the context of society's use of energy and materials

but first) an introduction ...
In the previous topic in the Preliminary Course, you learnt about

carbon chemistry
of petroleum

Then you will learn more carbon chemistry when you study the

alcohols

and the importance

as a fuel source. and the most important of this group member

TIlls topic begins by taking this idea further. Petroleum not only provides fuels, but is a source of chemicals for making plastics.

ETHANOL
a possible candidate for replacing petrol as a fuel. Then onto

REDOX Chemistry,
and its involvement in electric

Cells
&

Batteries
Finally, we go into phenomenon of the atomic nucleus to study the

Radioactivity

To understand this, you need to learn about a vital chemical Ethylene, and the important industrial process of

Polymerization.
You will learn about natural polymers, too. All living things are built from polymers, and as the Petrochemicals run out, we need to look to living things to provide our raw materials in the future.

CONCEPT DIAGRAM ("Mind Map") OF TOPIC
Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts. As you proceed through the topic, come back to this page regularly to see how each bit fits the whole. At the end of the notes you will find a blank version of this "Mind Map" to practise on.

Polyethylene
PVC

Condensation Polymers

Polystyrene

The Alkanols. Structure & Properties

Conversion of Ethylene to/from Ethanol

Ethylene; Chemistry
&

The Potential of Cellulose

!J

thanol from Fermentation Combustion of Alkanols

Sources

Polymers from Petrochemicals & Biomass

Heat of Combustion

Alternative Fuels. Ethanol & the Alcohols

Assessment of Ethanol as an Alternative Fuel

PRODUCTION

Displacement Reactions
&

of MATERIALS
REDOX Chemistry & Batteries

Activity Series of the Metals

Oxidation
&

Radioactivity & its Uses

Reduction

Galvanic Cells. Structure
&

Chemistry

Production & Uses of Commercial Radioisotopes

Radioactivity Alpha Beta Gamma

Standard Electrode Potentials & Cell EMF

Oxidation States Oxidation Number Transuranic Elements Commercial Cells & Batteries

Petrochemicals
When petroleum is refined, the major products are the fuels such as petrol and diesel. However, its not all about fuels. Our chemical industry depends on a whole range of other compounds extracted from petroleum, which are collectively called "Petrochemicals". Petrochemicals are vital raw materials for the manufacture of • plastics and synthetic fibres • pigments for inks, dyes and paints • detergents & adhesives • cosmetics & pharmaceuticals • explosives ... and much more.

Addition Reactions of Ethylene
These are not required learning, but study each diagram to make sure you understand the concept of an "Addition Reaction" across the double bond

, H C=C, H H
H
/ /

H
I

H
I

H-C -C-H I I

H

H

Ethene (Ethylene) CZH4 ~ Ethene is also known by its C =C common name, "Ethvlene". I I This is the name favoured in H H the syllabus, so it will be used from here on.

7

, H C=C, H H
H
/ /

Br Br
I

I

H-C -C-H I I

H

H

Reaction with HCl

Ethylene is the simplest of the Alkene homologous series. You previously learnt about the Phvsical Properties of the alkenes: • low m.p. & b.p.'s. • insoluble in water. • non-conductors of electricity. Due to non-polar bonding within, there are only weak "Dispersion Forces" between the molecules

H
'C=C/
/

H

H

CI
I

H

, H

+ HCI

I

H-C -C-H I I

H

H

The only...
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