According to Diodorus Siculus, the catapults were similar to arrow bows and were closely linked with each other in Greece. The catapults were used by a Greece task force in 399 B.C., while in 397 B.C. the Catapult was used on mass scale against Motya in Sicily. According to some sources the history of catapults dates back to third century BC. during which it was invented as a hand-held crossbow, known as gastraphetes or belly shooter. Going deep into the history of catapults we come across several drawings and informations on catapults to have been found in Belopoeica, a technical treatise of Heron. Zopyros, a historian, hailing from southern Italy, is stated to have developed gatstraphetes as weapon during a war against Cumae and Milet between 421 BC and 401 BC. Based on similar pattern the catapults were used in Greek as arrow -shooting machines, popularly known as katapaltai as well. According to Aeneas Tacticus, the flexible crossbows dominated the Greek and Roman artillery designs. History of catapults reveals that the catapults got improved and were supported with innovative technologies between 330-329 BC. With the improvement in catapults the Greek fortification developed high towers with shuttered windows in its top, where anti-personnel arrow shooters resided to defend the forts. Projectiles used in catapults included arrows and stones. History of catapults reveals that catapults were used by Romans between third and second century BC against Syracuse, Macedon, Sparta and Aetolia. The Castles and forts had come into existence making foe’s all the attempts to enter it futile, during the medieval period. With a view to occupy the fort, the catapults were used to throw inside forts incendiary missiles and other filthy materials to cause the damage and force the inmates to surrender. Diseased carcasses and decaying materials with their obnoxious smells were catapulted through the high walls of castles. Some of the known designs used during the...
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