History
A roller coaster train going down hill represents merely a complex case as a body is descending an inclined plane. Newton's first two laws relate force and acceleration, which are key concepts in roller coaster physics. At amusement parks, Newton's laws can be applied to every ride. These rides range from 'The Swings' to The 'Hammer'. Newton was also one of the developers of calculus which is essential to analyzing falling bodies constrained on more complex paths than inclined planes. A roller coaster rider is in an gravitational field except with the Principle of Equivalence.

Potential Energy
Potential energy is the same as stored energy. The "stored" energy is held within the gravitational field. When you lift a heavy object you exert energy which later will become kinetic energy when the object is dropped. A lift motor from a roller coaster exerts potential energy when lifting the train to the top of the hill. The higher the train is lifted by the motor the more potential energy is produced; thus, forming a greater amount if kinetic energy when the train is dropped. At the top of the hills the train has a huge amount of potential energy, but it has very little kinetic energy. Kinetic Energy

The word "kinetic" is derived from the Greek word meaning to move, and the word "energy" is the ability to move. Thus, "kinetic energy" is the energy of motion --it's ability to do work. The faster the body moves the more kinetic energy is produced. The greater the mass and speed of an object the more kinetic energy there will be. As the train accelerates down the hill the potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. There is very little potential energy at the bottom of the hill, but there is a great amount of kinetic energy. Theory

When the train is at the top and bottom of the hill there is not any potential or kinetic energy being used at all. The train at the bottom of the first drop should have enough energy to get back up the height of the lift...

...Lab 5
Conservation of Momentum and Energy
Abstract
The physics laws governing conservation of momentum and mechanical energy were investigated by performing multiple experiments with differing conditions. Conservation laws state energy is to be conserved in systems with no net external forces. Two trials consisted of inelastic collisions and two trials consisted of elastic conditions. Photogate software helped decipher initial and final velocities in order to perform calculations applied to conservation law equations. In both cases of conservation of momentum and kineticenergy, low relative changes in total energy (less than 0.003) were observed indicating general conservation of energy. Percent discrepancies comparing the theoretical to experimental values allowed for more insight on what was truly going on. Conservation of momentum was seen in Trial 1 (5.56%), Trial (1.69%) and Trial 4 (6.89%) all showing low percent discrepancies from the theoretical outcome. Trial 2, having a percent discrepancy of 52.0%, showed error in the experiment possibly due to friction, the photogate software, or other inconclusive factors. Conservation of mechanical energy was demonstrated in cases of elastic collision since low percent discrepancies of 1.47% and 15.87% were observed. There was no conservation of mechanical...

...in kineticenergy?
2. A 12 g bullet is fired horizontally into a 96 g wooden block initially at rest on a horizontal surface. After impact, the block slides 7.5 m before coming to rest. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between block and surface is 0.60, what was the speed of the bullet immediately before impact?
You have to use the conservation of the total energy of the system to do this problem:
Initially, you have, in the total of your system, a bullet that is moving at a certain speed and a block that is stationary:
Initial total energy = Potential Energy + KineticEnergy + Elastic Energy
There is no potential energy nor is there a spring in the system so no elastic energy.
Initial total energy = KineticEnergy.
Since the only thing that is moving in the system is the bullet, then you calculate the kineticenergy of the system at the initial state (before the bullet hits the block):
Kineticenergy = 1/2mv² where m = 0.012kg
So kinetic enery = .5 * 0.012 * v² = 0.006v²
We don't know the initial velocity of the bullet because that is what we are trying to find.
Now, you say that Initial Energy of the system = Final energy of the system...

... Power and Energy
Arlie Bamiano, Jealine Marie Bernabe, Petrenne Clarice Caimbon, Jhia Caso
Department of Biological Sciences
College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
España, Manila Philippines
Abstract
The experiment deals primarily with computing the work done by gravity on each member in two scenarios (going up and down the stairs of the second floor and the third floor of the Main Building) wherein weight was also considered and following this, the power output of each member was also computed. Using the Logger Pro, the kinetic and potential energies of a ball in free fall were graphed and compared. At the end of the experiment, it was said that member #2 was the most “powerful” among the group since she had the highest power output both in going up and going down the stairs and in the second activity, the results were obtained and the predictions made were correct.
1. Introduction
Work, power and energy are three words that are commonly used in a man’s
activity involving a force and movement in the direction of the force. Energy is the ability to do work. Power is the rate of doing work or the rate of using energy.
This experiment was designed to demonstrate the conservation of mechanical energy, to measure change in kinetic and potential energies as a ball moves in free fall and to determine power...

...KINETICENERGY
Objects have energy because of their motion; this energy is called kineticenergy. Kineticenergy of the objects having mass m and velocity v can be calculated with the formula given below;
K=1/2mv²
Kineticenergy is a scalar quantity; it does not have a direction. Unlike velocity, acceleration, force, and momentum, thekineticenergy of an object is completely described by magnitude alone. Like work and potential energy, the standard metric unit of measurement for kineticenergy is the Joule. As might be implied by the above equation, 1 Joule is equivalent to 1 kg(m/s) 2.
Examples
1. Determine the kineticenergy of a 625-kg roller coaster car that is moving with a speed of 18.3 m/s.
Answer:
KE = 0.5mv2
KE = (0.5)(625 kg)(18.3 m/s)2
KE = 1.05 x105 Joules
2. If the roller coaster car in the above problem were moving with twice the speed, then what would be its new kineticenergy?
Answer:
KE = 0.5mv2
KE = 0.5(625 kg)(36.6 m/s)2
KE = 4.19 x 105 Joules
Work-Energy Theorem
Relationship between KE and W: The word done on an object...

...Potential Energy
• Definition and Mathematics of Work
• Calculating the Amount of Work Done by Forces
• Potential Energy
• KineticEnergy
• Mechanical Energy
• Power
An object can store energy as the result of its position. For example, the heavy ball of a demolition machine is storing energy when it is held at an elevated position. This stored energy of position is referred to as potential energy. Similarly, a drawn bow is able to store energy as the result of its position. When assuming its usual position (i.e., when not drawn), there is no energy stored in the bow. Yet when its position is altered from its usual equilibrium position, the bow is able to store energy by virtue of its position. This stored energy of position is referred to as potential energy. Potential energy is the stored energy of position possessed by an object.
Gravitational Potential Energy
The two examples above illustrate the two forms of potential energy to be discussed in this course - gravitational potential energy and elastic potential energy. Gravitational potential energy is the energy stored in an object as the result of its vertical position or height. The...

...system. |
| | It would take less time to reach its bound orbit. |
| | It would orbit the earth at a faster velocity. |
| | | | |
Question 7 | 1.61 points | Save |
| When energy is converted from one form to another, a tiny amount is inevitably lost. | | | | |
| | True |
| False |
| | | | |
Question 8 | 1.61 points | Save |
| There is no gravity in space. | | | | |
| | True |
| False |
| | | | |
Question 9 | 1.61 points | Save |
| The Moon is slowly moving away from the earth. | | | | |
| | True |
| False |
| | | | |
Question 10 | 1.61 points | Save |
| Which of the following statements correctly describes the law of conservation of energy? | | | | |
| | | The total quantity of energy in the universe never changes. |
| | An object always has the same amount of energy. |
| | It is not really possible for an object to gain or lose potential energy, because energy cannot be destroyed. |
| | Energy can change between many different forms, such as potential, kinetic, and thermal, but it is ultimately destroyed. |
| | The fact that you can fuse hydrogen into helium to produce energy means that helium can be turned into hydrogen to produce energy. |
| | | | |
Question 11 | 1.61...

...Romar M. Cabinta
EXERCISES 15
WORK, ENERGY, AND POWER
A. CONCEPTUAL QUESTIONS
1. Is work done when you move a book from the top of the desk to the floor? Why?
Yes. It is because the displacement of the book from the top of the desk to the floor and the force that is applied to the book is parallel with one another.
2. State the law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy in two ways?
The law of conservation of energy states that energy may neither be created nor destroyed. Therefore the sum of all the energies in the system is a constant.
TMEinitial=TMEfinal
3. Explain the basic ideas that govern the design and operation of a roller coaster.
A roller coaster is operated and designed through the application of Physics. The law of Conservation of Energy governs the changes in a coaster's speed and height. Simply put, the higher an object is off the ground, the more potential energy it has - that is, potential to gain speed as it falls. As it falls toward the ground, that potential energy changes to kineticenergy, or energy of motion. The sum of the two types of energy is constant, but a roller coaster must maintain an adequate balance of potential and kineticenergies to deliver a thrilling ride.
4. An inefficient machine is said to “waste...

...the transfer of energy; work is done on an object when an applied force moves it through a distance. The link between work and energy is work done equals energy transferred. The units for the two are also the same (joules). E.g. 500J of work = 500J of kineticenergy.
Work is calculated with the formula: work done=force x distance moved
For example, if a force of 10 newton (F = 10 N) acts along point that travels 2 meters (d = 2 m), then it does the work W = (10 N)(2 m) = 20 N m = 20 J. This is approximately the work done lifting a 1 kg weight from ground to over a person's head against the force of gravity. Notice that the work is doubled either by lifting twice the weight the same distance or by lifting the same weight twice the distance.
Examples:
Force is measured in newton’s (N)
Distance is measured in meters (M)
Work done is measured in joules (J)
Examples of work done:
How much work is done by a person who uses a force of 27.5N to move a grocery buggy 12.3m?
W = F x d = (27.5N) (12.3m) = ?
Equation
W = 338.25J
Answer
55, 000J of work is done to move a rock 25m. How much force was applied?
F = W = 55,000J = ?
d 25m
Equation
F = 2200J
Answer
You and 3 friends apply a combined force of 489.5N to push a piano. The amount of work done is 1762.2J. What distance did the piano move?
Equation
d= W = 1762.2J =
F 489.5N
Answer...