Kinematics is the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of bodies (objects) and systems (groups of objects) without consideration of the forces that cause the motion. There are four activities done in this experiment. Graphical analysis of human motion, where displacement vs time and velocity vs. time were graphed. Graphical analysis of motion where in the 10th seconds the total displacement is 18.75m, average velocity is 1.88m/s and instantaneous velocity is 3.76m/s. Reaction time where one of the normal reaction time among the group is 0.16s and the reaction time while someone is distracting the member is 0.30s, and lastly graph matching.
Introduction:
As a living organism, all of us have the potential to move, change in position, or go to different places. In short, life is in constant motion. From the prehistoric chase of antelopes across the savanna to the pursuit of satellites in space, mastery of motion has been critical to our survival and success as a species. The study of motion and of physical concepts such as force and mass is called Dynamics. Kinematics is one of the topics under dynamics. Kinematics describes motion without regard to its causes. In this experiment, kinematics focuses in one dimension: a motion along a straight line. This kind of motion, actually any kind of motion, involves velocity, displacement, and acceleration with regards to time. The objectives of the experiment are to draw the displacement versus time graphs and velocity versus time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, and to determine one’s normal reaction time and his reaction time while being distracted by others.
Theory:
A branch of physics and a subdivision of classical mechanics concerned with the geometically possible motion of a body or system of bodies without consideration of the forces involved is called Kinematics. The objective of kinematics aims to...
...E102MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
GUIDE QUESTIONS:
1. From the data obtained, what is the effect of the height of the track to the cart’s acceleration?
The data shows that sinӨ, which is dependent on the height, is getting higher as acceleration is increasing. This implicates that when object is at higher altitude, its acceleration is faster.
2. From the data obtained, how is time, t related to the inclination of the track? Explain why?
Time and position of velocity are interrelated to each other and the height and gravitational pull affects the acceleration of a moving and a free falling object.
3. From the data obtained, how would you account the difference between the picket fence’s acceleration and the value of g?
The value of the slope of a graph of average velocity versus time will be the acceleration due to gravity of the falling object.
E102MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE
PROBLEM:
1. A police car is searching for a fugitive that managed to escape a while ago. Knowing that he is now safe, the fugitive begins to take a rest until he notices a police car approaching him at 10 m/s, accelerating at 5 m/s2 and it is 100 m away. The fugitive grabs a motorcycle and stars it accelerating at the same rate as the police car. How much time will it take the police car to catch the fugitive?
x = xo + vot + 1at2
2
xpolice = 0m +10m/s (t) + 0.5(5m/s2)t2
xfugitive...
...Physics 12 – Kinematics Worksheet
1. Which one of the following contains only vector quantities?
A. mass, time
B. force, velocity
C. time, momentum
D. acceleration, speed
2. An airplane heads due north with an airspeed of 75 m/s. The wind is blowing due west at 18 m/s. What is the airplane’s speed relative to the ground?
A. 57 m/s
B. 73 m/s
C. 77 m/s
D. 93 m/s
3. Two velocity vectors, v1 and v2 are shown.
Which of the following best represents the resultant of the addition of the two velocity vectors?
4. A car travelling north at 20 m/s is later travelling west at 30 m/s. What is the direction of the change in velocity?
5. Two forces act at a single point as shown.
What is the magnitude of the resulting force?
A. 15 N
B. 22 N
C. 27 N
D. 30 N
6. A boat shown below travels at 4.2 m/s relative to the water, in a river flowing at 2.8 m/s.
At what angle must the boat head to reach the destination directly across the river?
A. 34o
B. 42o
C. 48o
D. 56o
7. In landing, a jet plane decelerates uniformly and comes to a stop in 38 s, covering a distance of 1500 m along the runway. What was the jet’s landing speed when it first touched the runway?
A. 2.1 m/s
B. 39 m/s
C. 79 m/s
D. 170 m/s
8. A 35 kg object released from rest near the surface of a planet falls 7.3 m in 1.5 s. What is the
acceleration due to gravity on this planet?
A. 4.9 m/s2
B. 6.5 m/s2...
...
Lab #3: Initial Velocity of a Projectile 


Abhishek Samdaria 
Pd.4 and 5 

Lab #3: Initial Velocity of a Projectile
Theory:
How can we determine the initial velocity of a projectile?
Experimental Design:
The purpose behind this experiment was to determine the initial velocity of a projectile. Projection motion consists of kinematics of motion in the x and y directions. With two dimensionkinematics, there are the x and y components in any given velocity. In projectile motion, the x component has no acceleration as no outside forces are acting on it. The Y component on the other hand has gravity acting as a force.
A small ball is shot, at three various angles (30,45,60), and through the known values the initial velocity of the ball is found. As a result, the range of the project can be represented with the equation
1) R = V02g*Sin2θ , where R represents the range or Dx; the values of g and θ are known.
However, in this experiment, one main equation were used to determine the initial velocity.
1) yy0=tanθxgx22(V0cosθ)2 , where y is the trajectory of a particle in two dimensional motion, gravity is 9.81 m/s 2 , and θ is the launch angle. X is equal to the average distance launched in the x direction.
In order to determine all the components required to use the trajectory equation, a small projectile...
...Exercises for Chapter 1 Kinematics
1. An impulsive retarding force of 3 seconds duration acts on a particle which is moving with a forward velocity of 60 m/s. The oscilloscope record of the deceleration is shown. Determine the approximate velocity of the particle at t = 9 s. [answer: 58 m/s] 2. A car can decelerate at 0.8 ‘g’ on a certain road. Find the total emergency stopping distance measured from the point where the driver first sights the danger for a speed of 100 km/hr. The time taken for the driver to identify the hazard, decide on a course of action, and apply the brakes is 0.75 s. [Answer: 70 m] 3. An underground train on the Mass Transit Railway moves away from a station with an initial acceleration of 0.9 m/s2. The acceleration decreases uniformly with time until after half a minute it is 0.3 m/s2. Calculate the speed reached and the distance travelled during this time. [Answer: 18 m/s, 315 m] 4. The magnitude of the acceleration and deceleration of an express lift is limited to 0.4 ‘g’, and the maximum vertical speed is 400 m/min. Calculate the minimum time required for the lift to go from rest at the 10th floor to a stop at the 30th floor, a distance of 100 m. [Answer: 16.7 s] 5. A cam rotates at 500 rev/min and imparts ‘parabolic’ motion (i.e. Constant acceleration and deceleration) to a reciprocating follower. The total lift of the follower is 20 mm and this takes place during 90 degrees of cam rotation.
If the...
...1. Alice throws the ball to the +X direction with an initial velocity 10m/s. Time elapsed during the motion is 5s, calculate the height that object is thrown and Vy component of the velocity after it hits the ground.
2. John kicks the ball and ball does projectile motion with an angle of 53º to horizontal. Its initial velocity is 10 m/s, find the maximum height it can reach, horizontal displacement and total time required for this motion. (sin53º=0, 8 and cos53º=0, 6)
3. The boy drops the ball from a roof of the house which takes 3 seconds to hit the ground. Calculate the velocity before the ball crashes to the ground. (g=10m/s²)
4. John throws the ball straight upward and after 1 second it reaches its maximum height then it does free fall motion which takes 2 seconds. Calculate the maximum height and velocity of the ball before it crashes the ground. (g=10m/s²)
5. An object does free fall motion. It hits the ground after 4 seconds. Calculate the velocity of the object after 3 seconds and before it hits the ground. What can be the height it is thrown?
6. Calculate the velocity of the car which has initial velocity 24m/s and acceleration 3m/s² after 15 second.
7. The car which is initially at rest has an acceleration 7m/s² and travels 20 seconds. Find the distance it covers during this period.
8. An airplane accelerates...
...Laboratory – Terminal Velocity
Introduction:
Consider dropping a piece paper and a brick from the same height. Although in theory they should both strike the ground at the same time; in practice the brick will always strike the ground first. The reason is because of air resistance. As the paper falls to the ground air resistance is pushing the paper up, this slows the acceleration of the paper.
It is known that as the velocity of an object increases the air resistance acting on the object increases. If we consider jumping out of a plane and free fall towards the Earth the F.B.D. would be as follows:
Now the force of gravity acting on the object does not change, however as we speed up towards the Earth the force of air resistance is increasing. Eventually there reaches a point when the Fg = Fair when this occurs we are no longer accelerating towards the Earth, but fall with a constant velocity that is called the TERMINAL VELOCITY.
The terminal velocity of an object in free fall depends on two main factors:
1. The mass of the object
2. The surface area exposed to the air resistance
For example: A human free falling towards Earth has a terminal velocity of 190 km/h. If you use a parachute the terminal velocity is about 20 km/h.
If we were to observe this motion on a speed time graph it would be as follows:...
...Problems (Chapter 3)
Review Example problems #1  12 by yourself.
Problem 3 (page 96): A web page designer creates an animation in which a dot on a computer screen has a position of r = [4 cm + (2.5 cm/s2)t2]i + (5 cm/s)t j.
a) Find the magnitude and direction of the dot’s average velocity between t = 0 and t = 2 s.
b) Find the magnitude and direction of the instantaneousvelocity at t = 0, t = 1 s, nd t = 2 s.
c) Sketch the dot’s trajectory from t = 0 to t = 2 s, and show the velocities calculated in part (b).
(a) Identify and Set Up: From [pic] we can calculate x and y for any t.
Then use Eq. (3.2), in component form.
Execute: [pic]
At [pic] [pic]
At [pic] [pic]
[pic]
[pic]
 [pic]  [pic] 
   [pic] 
   [pic] 
Figure 3.3a   
Evaluate: Both x and y increase, so [pic] is in the 1st quadrant.
(b) Identify and Set Up: Calculate [pic] by taking the time derivative of [pic]
Execute: [pic]
[pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] and [pic]
[pic]...
...Roller Coaster Velocity Report for 8th Grade Science
The performance of our roller coaster, The Gunslinger, was based on the ability to provide an example of Newton’s First Law of Motion, which states; an object in motion stays in motion while an object at rest stays at rest unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Our design shows that The Gunslinger achieves potential and kinetic energy through gravity and friction caused from the momentum that the acceleration provides.
First we start off with acceleration, which is the increase of speed or velocity. In our roller coaster acceleration happens as you move down the slope, through the loop, and around the curve. Negative acceleration happens as you move up the loop, before the hill and right before the exit path. In order for negative acceleration to happen we need friction. Friction is the rubbing of one object or surface against another. Friction is what makes the object slow down as it moves up the loop and up the hill. Gravity is the natural force or attraction between any two massive bodies. Gravity is what pulls the object down the slope at the beginning of the roller coaster.
Our design of the roller coaster also shows that it is able to accomplish potential and kinetic energy as momentum occurs all through out. Momentum is a measure of the motion of a body equal to the product of its mass and velocity. Therefore, momentum occurs as the object moves down...
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