Kinds of terms :
When a term is being applied to their inferiors in the same exact essence, such term is univocal. Example :
* a drum and a piano are both occurrences or inferiors of the term instrument, making it univocal or having only one meaning, which is an object that produces music. *
When instances are under the same term but of entirely different meaning, the term is equivocal. The term is referred by instances of different meanings. Example :
* A faggot becomes equivocal when applied to the bundle of sticks for firewood and the slang for a gay man. Similarly, the term gay has over the years evolved to adapt a new meaning, that of being homosexual, entirely different from gay as in being merry.
Terms become analogous when their inferiors are partly the same but also partly different in their use or essence. The emphasis on the analogy of inferiors, in this case called analogues, depends on the degree of their relation with each other and to the general term. Example :
* The head as in the chief executive officer and the head in a person are both the topmost part of a company and the human body, respectively. They are in some way similar and vital but have no direct resemblance to each other.
Supposition may be taken either as the function whereby a term stands for a meaning in the proposition, or it may be taken for the meaning itself for which the term stands (for from the Latin supponere, “to substitute”). It is this meaning with which we are now concerned. For, whereas a term may have several different meaning in the dictionary, when employed in a sentence it is used to bear one meaning only.
Supposition may be classified:
I. ACCORDING TO THE OBJECT
The supposition is:
Real - when the term designates something found in the external world; E.g. the Republic of the Philippines.
Logical or Conceptual – when the term designates some product of the mind; E.g. ¾. Under this conceptual category, the supposition may also be ideological, mathematical, superstitious, hypothetical, fictitious, etc. as the designated conceptual object may be.
Metaphorical – when the term designates another thing aside from its literal meaning, from the formal resemblance of the former to the latter; E.g. the Stars and Stripes, namely, the American Nation; Mr. Juan de la Cruz, namely, the common Filipino.
II. ACCORDING TO EXTENSION
The supposition is:
Individual – when the term denotes a definite individual; E.g. the President of the First Philippine Republic;
Universal – when the term denotes distributively all the individuals of the expressed nature or category, or when the term designates a universal formal reason or a universal individual; E.g. men are progressive beings; drunkenness is not a virtue, whereas temperance is; man is mortal. – observe that a grammatically singular term may have a universal supposition.
Particular – when the term denotes only a part of the extension of the universal; E.g. some students are lazy; men (not all but most) are stronger than women (not all but most); men are less emotional than women. – observe that a grammatically plural term may have a particular supposition.
Collection – when the term designates a group, or individuals as constituting a group; E.g. the TTMIST computer hackers team; the SCUAA team.
III. ACCORDING TO COMPREHENSION
The supposition is:
Material – when the term denotes the subject expressed, merely as identified by the quality, form or nature expressed, but not as qualified by it; e.g. the physician sing, or killed a man. He does so not is his capacity as physician but as a human being.
Formal – inasmuch as the term stands for a subject as identified and qualified by the nature or qualification expressed. E.g. this physician has healed many patients.He did so in his capacity as physician.
IV. ACCORDING TO THE MEANING
The supposition is:...