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The kidney is an extraordinary organ. Without its processes, human life would be virtually impossible. It is a very well known fact that when individuals consume large amounts of liquid, they eliminate much of the liquid through urine. On the other hand, when individuals are severely dehydrated very little urine is formed. This certainly illustrates that control mechanisms in the human being can regulate the amount of urine that is formed. When tap water is ingested, there is a relatively rapid elimination of the water in the urine. However, when salt is ingested, there is a considerable delay in the excretion of water because salt is ingested. The ingestion of coffee is very quickly followed by rapid elimination of urine as a result of the effect of caffeine on the kidney. This effect would be observed with any beverage containing caffeine. The measurement of pH and color is an indication of whether urine is dilute or concentrated. If urine is concentrated, then the pH would be low and the color would be dark yellow. A dilute urine, however, would have a high pH and be almost colorless. Under normal conditions, the pH or urine is slightly acidic, because metabolic reactions in the cells generate acid materials. The normal pH of urine is about 6: although, under certain conditions, the pH could be as low as 4.5 or as high as 8. The color of urine is due to the presence of bile pigments which are end products of hemoglobin metabolism. If these pigments are concentrated in urine, then urine would have a darker color. The purpose of this experiment is to show the kidneys ability to alter the output of urine in response to the ingestion of different liquids such as tap water, Gatorade or any other sport drink, and coffee. Collect/Research Information
The makeup of the urinary tract includes: the kidneys, two ureters, and the urethra, a tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body. The kidneys make up a filter system for the blood, reabsorbing almost 99% of the fluid into the blood, and sending only two to four pints of waste (urine) into the bladder for storage until it can be disposed of. The kidneys allow the blood to keep glucose, salts and minerals after cleansing it of poisonous materials which will be passed out in the urinary tract. Urine is produced in the kidneys and goes down through two ten to twelve inch long tubes called ureters, which connect the kidneys to the bladder. The ureters are about one-fourth inch in diameter and their muscular walls contract to make waves of movement to force the urine into the bladder. The bladder is expandable and stores the urine until it can be conveniently disposed of. It also closes openings into the ureters so that urine cannot flow back into the kidneys. The tube through which the urine flows out of the body is called the urethra. Kidneys are also largely responsible for maintaining the water balance of the body and the pH of the blood. Kidneys play important roles in other bodily functions, such as releasing the hormone producing protein that stimulates increased development of red blood cells in the bone marrow, and helping to control blood pressure. Kidneys are paired, reddish-brown, bean-shaped structures. They are about eleven centimeters long. Kidneys are located on each side of spine, just above the waist. The kidneys are sophisticated trash collectors. Every day, your kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to sift out about two quarts of waste products and extra water.
When something goes wrong inside the kidney your body may be in risk of a many very serious problems. Today more than 20 million Americans, one in nine adults, have chronic kidney disease; more than 20 million others are at increased risk. Kidney disease is one of the costliest illnesses in the U.S. today. More than 70,000 Americans die each year because of kidney disease. At the moment more than 50,000 patients are waiting for kidney transplants,...
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