Khjk

Only available on StudyMode
  • Topic: Translation, Dynamic and formal equivalence, Literal translation
  • Pages : 25 (7443 words )
  • Download(s) : 78
  • Published : April 25, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
Chapter 1: Basic concepts in Translation

1) What is translation?
a) Definition of translation.
Translation is a term we use in everyday language to refer to an activity (or a phenomenon) that takes place almost every moment in our lives in different ways. That is why a whole discipline is devoted to it to explore its nature, its principles, the factors influencing it, and how it works, etc. And as the case with every academic discipline, researchers and scholars begin by defining their terms, especially the subject of their study. Different definitions have been proposed in the literature to delimit the notion of translation. But these definitions differ in how inclusive they are and in the aspects they emphasize. One of the earliest and most inclusive definitions of translation is that proposed by Roman Jakobson (1959). He classifies translation into the following three categories: 1) Intralingual translation or "rewording" which means interpreting a text in the same language. Text | Intralingual translation|

هذا الرجل رفيع العماد| |
The cat is out of the bag.| |
If you don’t do your homework, you'll be punished.| |
اليوم عطلة| |

2) Interlingual translation or "translation proper" which means interpreting a text in another language Text | Interlingual translation|
هذا الرجل رفيع العماد| |
The cat is out of the bag.| |
If you don’t do your homework, you'll be punished.| |
اليوم عطلة| |
3) Intersemiotic translation or transmutation which means interpreting verbal signs by means of non-verbal signs. Text | Intersemiotic translation|
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
Very few researchers adopted Jakobson's definition, such as Steiner (1975) and most recently Zethsen (2007). Most (if not all) translation scholars limit their definitions to the second category in Jakobson's classification, translation proper. Almost all of these definitions convey the same basic idea that translation entails changing a text from one language to another. But they differ in the translation aspects they highlight. Look at the following definitions and try to pinpoint the aspects emphasized in each. 1) (1995 "الترجمة تعني نقل الأفكار و الأقوال من لغة إلى أخرى مع المحافظة على روح النص المنقول" (منسي، ابراهيم، متولي، 2) "الترجمة عملية إبداعية معقدة جدا، يدرك المترجم خلالها كل تفاصيل المعنى الأصل في لغة الأصل، و ينشئ نصا جديدا، محافظا فيه على كل تفاصيل هذا المعنى الأصلي و ظلاله" (أسعد الحكيم، 1989) 3) "Our threefold definition of the ambit of translation will thus be: a. The process of transferring a written text from SL to TL, conducted by a translator, or translators, in a specific socio-cultural context. b. The written product, or TT, which results from that process and which functions in the socio-cultural context of the TL. c. The cognitive, linguistic, visual, cultural and ideological phenomena which are an integral part of 1 and 2." (Hatim and Munday, 2004)

4) Translation is the expression in another language (or target language) of what has been expressed in another, source language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences. (in Bell, 1991) 5) Translation can be defined as: “a communicative process which involves changing a ST into a TT where all meaning composites are conveyed across linguistic and cultural barriers, using the most appropriate methods and strategies”. Translators should also be aware that the term ‘translation’ is used in the literature to refer to different things: 1) the general subject field, 2) the product (TT), 3) the process of translation (the act of producing the translation), 4) an abstract concept which encompasses both the process of translating and the product of that process.

Exercise:
1) Using Jakobson's classification of translation types, decide the type of translation in the following texts: a) ST: She needed the salubrious mountain air .
TT: She needed to go to the mountains to get fresh,...
tracking img