a) Though the two terms seem similar on the surface, in reality they are quite different. A great manager does not necessarily make a great leader, and a great leader does not necessarily make a great manager. Management controls or directs people/resources in a group according to principles or values that have already been established. Leadership is setting a new direction or vision for a group that they follow, i.e.: a leader is the spearhead for that new direction. The manager uses a formal, rational method whilst the leader uses passion and stirs emotions. People naturally and willingly follow leaders due to their charisma and personality traits, whereas a manager is obeyed due to the formal authority vested in him/her. As a result, people tend to be more loyal towards leaders rather than managers. Managers supervise employees. They make plans, delegate responsibilities, and coordinate activities. Their goal is to create something that is definable and repeatable. Leaders are focused on bringing about innovation and change for the company. Their primary role is to inspire people and to motivate employees. They are focused on change. They create a sense of vision, hope, and alignment among employees. An organisation cannot thrive without a manager, and it cannot thrive without a leader. Leadership and management must go hand in hand to be successful - both in corporate and casual settings. They are linked, and complimentary to one another.
Managers will:Leaders will:
Focus on systems and/or structuresFocus on people
Rely on their controlInspire trust in people
Hold short range viewsHave a longer range perspective
Ask ‘how’ and ‘when’Ask ‘what’ and ‘why’
Keep an eye on the bottom lineKeep an eye on the horizon
Accept the status quoChallenge it
Be a classic good soldierBe his/her own person
Accept realityInvestigate it
b) Management encompasses 5 functions which are planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. Planning - Planning gives management the ability to logically come up with different strategies to make sure that the project ends in success. The term for generating plans of action can be for immediate, short term, medium term and long term periods. If management does not implement a plan the only plan that he can guarantee is a poor performance. Organising - In order to make sure that the plan is a success management have to make sure things within the company and the plan are properly organised. This is where management can divide, coordinate and control the task and information within the organisation. Assigning work and granting authority are 2 important elements of organising. Staffing - Now that the structure is properly put together, management needs to have employee's to carry out the plan. This is also known as human resource management. In this concept management will be devoted to properly acquiring, training, appraising, and compensating their employee's. Employees are what give a company a competitive edge. Management must ensure that the right number of and kind of employees are placed at the right places and at the right time when the organisation is in need of them. Directing – This is the ability to get employee's to achieve the goals of the company in the most effective and optimal way. Leading, motivating, communication and coordination are the elements that come under directing. Directing is about guiding and leading the people in an organisation. Controlling - This is the process that ensures whether the resources are obtained and used efficiently in achieving the organisational objectives. This function will be the last task that management will do. This will allow the ability to check the performance of the employee's to make sure it correlates with the input (plan) and output...