Key Causes of Water Scarcity and Researched Solutions

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Table of Contents
Abstract
1.0Introduction4

2.0Causes of Demand For Water 5
2.1Industrial Demand5
2.1.1Industrial Water Consumption5
2.2Agricultural Demand6
2.2.1Population Growth6
2.3Consumer Demand7
2.3.1Economic Growth7

3.0Solutions to Water Scarcity8
3.1Watershed Methods 8
3.2Conservation Techniques9
3.3Reclaimed Water10

4.0Conclusion11

5.0Recommendations12
Reference List

1.0Introduction
This report is about the increase in demand for water, and its’ purpose is a twofold, firstly to examine and explore some of the causes of the ever increasing issue of the scarcity of water due to industrial, agricultural and consumer demand in society, and secondly to analyse the solutions of this concern for the Premier of Western Australia, Mr Colin Barnett. This is because water is a valuable resource that is vital for the human race and developing countries such as Australia will be facing an increase in domestic consumption of water by 70 percent in the future (Cashman and Ashley 2008). There were certain limitations surrounding this report, for example the word limit for this report was 1000 words and I was permitted to use a minimum of five scholarly sources and a maximum of seven. The methodology of my research began by using the database: proquest on the Internet, where I found these reliable sources.

2.0Causes of Demand for Water
2.1Industrial Demand
Industrial Water Consumption
Industries are one of the major key causes of the increased demand for water. Many industries require water to operate and perform the functions that are required to produce the goods or services in question. This is because industries such as oil and mining, are hugely dependable on extreme capacities of water thus, making them susceptible to water shortages (Holbrook 2009). Industries therefore depend on these large amounts of water for production and simultaneously are one of the essential instigators in the ever-increasing problem of water scarcity. In places such as New South Wales, Adelaide and Melbourne where mining operations are carried out, water scarcity is even more extreme. This is because of the material that is being extracted; they are mined in those areas and those areas alone, and therefore the large volume of water that is needed to extract them is adding to the concern of water scarcity. An estimate of water between 100 and 8000 litres are required to obtain one tonne of ore, and to worsen the situation, mining operations cannot be shifted causing water availability to be problematic in those areas (Holbrook 2009). This issue allows an increased strain on the local communities in which mining operations are performed thus causing a concern for the people living in those areas.

2.2Agricultural Demand
Population Growth
The demand for agriculture is one of the most excessive causes of water scarcity. This is because agriculture needs fresh water in the process of its production. Agriculture consumes the majority of global fresh water, making it one of the most enormous water sources of the increased water demand; the production of food is also rising due to population growth, of about 80 million people per year (Holbrook 2009). According to Irvine and Saulwick (2009), “Australia is poised to be the world's fastest growing industrialized nation over the next four decades, with a rate of population growth higher even than India”. Thus with population increasing by a vast number every year, the demand for fresh water will additionally increase, therefore adding to the water scarcity in Australia.

2.3Consumer Demand
Economic Growth
The development of the economy is another cause of the increased demand for water in the world today. As the population grows, so does the demand for goods and services and therefore results in economic growth...
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