1) Outline the main assumptions of the psychodynamic approach
The psychodynamic approach to psychology is the study of human behaviour from the point of view of motivation and drives. The original beliefs of this approach were created by Sigmund Freud in the 1800s. Although it is now generally seen negatively in the common view, sometimes comically, it has provided the inspiration for a few of the current leading approaches to psychology. The first assumption of this approach is of the importance of the unconscious mind and motivation. Freud believed that much of what determines our behaviour is on a mental level that is hidden to us, and that there are three levels of consciousness: 1) The conscious mind Thoughts we are aware of
2) The preconscious mind Memories we can invoke
3) The unconscious mind Hidden thoughts, as well as instincts
Freud used the iceberg analogy to describe our mind, in that the tip of the iceberg (conscious) is much smaller than the underwater part (preconscious and unconscious). The unconscious mind can be revealed through techniques developed by Freud, such as free association and dream analysis, as the unconscious mind tends to use symbolism in the conscious mind. Much of what was once conscious to us has been made unconscious via. repression, a form of ego defence. Freud also believed that when we say something accidentally, we are actually revealing what we unconsciously didn't want to say. These he called Freudian slips. A Freudian slip didn't have to be just said, but could be and action as well. Freud believed that other explanations could sometimes be made, but were generally unconscious in origin. The second assumption is of the importance of early experience in humans. What happens to us in childhood affects our behaviour when we are older. Freud believed that we progress through certain stages when we grow up, and particular events can lead to a regression to that point later in life, or being permanently stuck in...
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