By Robertson Ndegwa Ngunyi 罗伯特 Paper submitted for Ecotourism Final Exam to Sun Yat Sen University, Doctorate in Tourism Management School of Business, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management Professor Liu Yan December, 2009 Keywords: Protected areas, Sustainability, Community Based Tourism, Maasai, Safari
Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Kenya
Robertson Ndegwa Ngunyi
The purpose of this paper is to provide abridgment of the current state of affairs in Kenya, critically examine the impacts and the challenges of ecotourism; investigate the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development and suggest ways to improve Ecotourism in Kenya. What are the main challenges of Ecotourism? What are the feasible benefits that can ecotourism bring? Lastly is Ecotourism in Kenya sustainable? The paper also attempts to discuss the Kenya’s SWOT analysis as an Ecotourism destination, the protected areas including national parks and reserves, and some of the organisations promoting ecotourism in Kenya. To further explain this, the paper has used an Eco rating of lodges in Kenya by Ecotourism Kenya and given a case study of an Eco rate lodge. The writer has also discussed the implications and way forward for sustainable tourism in Kenya.
Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Ecotourism and sustainable Development 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. Meaning of ecotourism Principles of Ecotourism Sustainable tourism development Page 4 4 4 7 8 10 10 11 14 16 17 18 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 28 29 31 33 36 38 45
3. The growth of Ecotourism in Kenya 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. History of ecotourism in Kenya Growth of Ecotourism in Kenya Tourism trends in Kenya Institution structure of Tourism in Kenya Ecotourism and related organisations
4. Protected areas 4.1 Proportion of wildlife in protected areas 5. Impacts and challenges 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. Economic Sociocultural Environmental Political Kenya SWOT Analysis
6. Eco-Rating of Lodges in Kenya 6.1 6.2 Case Study of Eco rated Base Camp Lodge Eco rated lodges in Kenya
7. Conclusion and discussions References Appendix 1 Appendix 2
1.0 Introduction Over time, an increasing number of destinations have opened up and invested in tourism development, turning modern tourism into a key driver for socio-economic progress, through the creation of jobs and enterprises, infrastructure development, and the export income earned (UNWTO 2009). Tourism has become one of the major international trade categories. The overall export income generated by international tourism including passengers transport reached US$ 1.1 trillion in 2008, or US$ 3 billion a day (UNWTO 2009). Tourism exports account for as much as 30% of the world’s exports of commercial services and 6% of overall exports of goods and services. Globally, as an export category, tourism ranks fourth after fuels, chemicals and automotive products. For many developing countries it is one of the main income sources and the number one export category, creating much needed employment and opportunities for development (UNWTO 2009). Ecotourism and sustainable tourism development has become the catch word today
2.0 Ecotourism and sustainable Development 2.1 Meaning of ecotourism
Although the origins of the concept of ecotourism are not certain, one of the first sources to have contributed to the discourse appears to be Hetzer (1965), who identified four pillars or principles of responsible tourism. These four pillars are minimizing environmental impacts, respecting the host cultures, maximizing benefits to local people, and maximizing tourist satisfaction (Blamey, 2001). Ecotourism holidays demand was boosted by concrete evidence that consumers had shifted away from mass tourism towards experiences that were more individualistic and enriching. In addition, these experiences were claimed to be associated with a general search for the natural component...