The past 25 years have witnessed the emergence of new conceptual models in
the field of educational leadership. Two of the foremost models, as measured by
the number of empirical studies, are instructional leadership and transformational
leadership (Heck & Hallinger, 1999). In contrast with many earlier
leadership models applied to school administration (e.g. situational leadership,
trait theories, contingency theory), these models focus explicitly on the manner
in which the educational leadership exercised by school administrators and
teachers brings about improved educational outcomes (e.g. Leithwood & Jantzi,
1999b; Southworth, 2002).
Instructional leadership models emerged in the early 1980s from early
research on effective schools. This body of research identified strong, directive
leadership focused on curriculum and instruction from the principal as a characteristic
of elementary schools that were effective at teaching children in poor urban
communities (Edmonds, 1979; Leithwood & Montgomery, 1982). Although
not without its critics (e.g. Cuban, 1984; Miskel, 1982), this model shaped
much of the thinking about effective principal leadership disseminated in the
ISSN 0305-764X print; ISSN 1469-3577 online/03/030329-24 2003 University of Cambridge Faculty of Education
330 P. Hallinger
1980s and early 1990s internationally. Moreover, the emerging popularity of
this model, at least in the USA, soon became evident from its widespread
adoption as the ‘model of choice’ by most principal leadership academies
(Hallinger, 1992; Hallinger & Wimpelberg, 1992).
With the advent of school restructuring in North America during the 1990s,
scholars and practitioners began to popularise terms such as shared leadership,
teacher leadership, distributed leadership, and transformational leadership. The
emergence of these leadership models indicated a broader dissatisfaction with
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