One basic tenet Karl Marx's defines in his famous Manifesto of the Communist Party is the distinguishing characteristics of two opposing social classes: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The bourgeoisie also known as the “capitalist” are the ones who own the means of production. Because of their wealth, they also have the power to control pretty much everything. The proletariat known as the “workers” do not own nor have any control of the means of production but earn money from the bourgeoisie by providing their labor for very little money.
How is the proletariat held in subjugation? Well the bourgeoisie has ownership of the mean of production, class consciousness because the proletariats worked too hard that they had no social relationship with each other and religion. The proletariats used religion to more or less forget their problems.
When it comes to the value of commodities, Marx introduced three evaluating commodities: use, exchange, and surplus value. The use value is a direct relationship between you and a product. For example, a cup holds water so you can have a drink. The exchange value is anything that has a direct value and can be exchanged for other commodities. For example, diamonds have very little usefulness but have a high value in trade for other commodities. The surplus value is the total cost of a manufacture product minus what it costs to produce it. For example, a company makes a car for five thousand dollars but sells it for twenty thousand even though it only cost them five thousand to make it
When it comes to use value of labor, exchange value of labor, and surplus value it helps us understand the exploitative nature of capitalism because you can reduce the cost of production by reducing the proletariat pay, increase the speed that the proletariat produce, or cut their hours and benefits. Basically all these things are manipulated by the bourgeoisie. Karl Marx believed that there are five aspects of proletariats alienation...
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