Kap Study - for Pms Among College Students

Topics: Menstrual cycle, Premenstrual syndrome, Statistical significance Pages: 26 (7865 words) Published: January 17, 2012

1.1. Introduction:
Women experience a lot of changes (symptoms) during their menstrual cycle, which markedly compromises their quality of life and ability to function, leading to higher direct medical costs for increased physician visits and laboratory tests, and higher indirect costs to employers through lower productivity at work. This group of symptoms form the Pre Menstrual Syndrome which varies in severity from person to person. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cyclic, complex, interactive disorder, which includes physical, emotional and behavioral symptoms. Premenstrual syndrome is characterized by mental and physical symptoms that vary with different phases of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms start shortly after ovulation, increase in severity, and reach a maximum during the last five premenstrual days. After the onset of menstrual bleeding, the symptoms rapidly disappear and are usually gone within three to four days. Diagnostic procedures using prospective daily symptom ratings have recently been developed, allowing a more precise diagnosis of the cyclical mood changes and leading to a clearer picture and definition of the condition.( Robinson et al., 2000). Results from community studies show that the severity of the cyclical mood changes varies within a population of women of fertile age, from those having no cyclical mood changes to those severely handicapped by the symptoms for 14 days of the month. The severity assessment of subjective symptoms is difficult since severity is difficult to compare among individuals. Premenstrual emotional and physical changes occur in nearly 80% of menstruating women. The symptoms vary from woman to woman and from cycle to cycle. Their intensity ranges from mild to incapacity. About 20% to 40% of women who have PMS experience symptoms that make life difficult and 2.5% to 5% experience PMS that is debilitating. PMS leads to substantial impairment in normal daily activities and occupational productivity among women and significantly increased work absenteeism.( Dean et al., 2004). Dysmenorrhea interferes with their daily life activities and results in absenteeism between one to seven days. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea is 71% as shown by a study on the K.A.P about dysmenorrhea and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in Tehran (Poureslemi 2000). Women under identify the severity of PMS difficulties and they are reluctant to seek help because of attitudinal barrier (Robinson 2000). The benefits of the PMS educational program employed in a study about the effects of educational programme on adolescents with PMS showed a decrease in the total PMS scores and a reduction in the experimental group's premenstrual symptoms of anxiety, water retention and craving. The schoolgirls in the experimental group reported less PMS symptoms 3 months after the educational program, while no significant changes were found in the control group. (Poureslemi 2000). Another study about the efficacy of self care measures shows that more than 90% of the women are affected by one or more symptoms of PMS and significant increase in self care measures resulted in reduction of symptoms (Kirkpatrick et al., 1990). One goal in determining economic impact of premenstrual conditions is to establish whether treatment of PMS would decrease healthcare utilization and improve worker performance, thus decreasing the burden of illness. Since the research showed that PMS was associated with greater absenteeism and decreased occupational performance and productivity, the actual cost to the individual woman and society was important to determine. (Kirkpatrick et al., 1990). One does not have to suffer the difficulty. Treatment and changes in life style can help reduce these symptoms. This study was aimed at reducing the burden of the problem among girls by intervening with a health education programme regarding the right symptomatic therapy and a healthy diet that will help...
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