Virtual University of Pakistan

Statistics and Probability STA301

Virtual University of Pakistan

i

STA301 – Statistics and Probability

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE

LECTURE NO. 1

PAGE NO 1

Definition of Statistics Observation and Variable Types of Variables Measurement Sales Error of Measurement LECTURE NO. 2

6 16

Data collection Sampling

LECTURE NO. 3

Types of Data Tabulation and Presentation of Data Frequency distribution of Discrete variable LECTURE NO. 4

23 32 42

Frequency distribution of continuous variable

LECTURE NO. 5

Types o frequency Curves Cumulative frequency Distribution

LECTURE NO.

6

Stem and Leaf Introduction to Measures of Central Tendency Mode LECTURE NO. 7

53

Arithmetic Mean Weighted Mean Median in case of ungroup Data LECTURE NO.

8

62

Median in case of group Data Median in case of an open-ended frequency distribution Empirical relation between the mean, median and the mode Quantiles (quartiles, deciles & percentiles) Graphic location of Quantiles LECTURE NO.

9

70

Geometric mean Harmonic mean Relation between the arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means Some other measures of central tendency LECTURE NO. 10

76

Concept of dispersion Absolute and relative measures of dispersion Range Coefficient of dispersion Quartile deviation Coefficient of quartile deviation LECTURE NO. 11

82

Mean Deviation Standard Deviation and Variance Coefficient of variation LECTURE NO.

12

89

Chebychev’s Inequality The Empirical Rule The Five-Number Summary LECTURE NO. 13

95

Virtual University of Pakistan

ii

STA301 – Statistics and Probability

Box and Whisker Plot Pearson’s Coefficient of Skewness

LECTURE NO. 14

106

Bowley’s coefficient of Skewness The Concept of Kurtosis Percentile Coefficient of Kurtosis Moments & Moment Ratios Sheppard’s Corrections The Role of Moments in Describing Frequency Distributions LECTURE NO. 15...

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