Juvenile Justice System

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Abstract

This study addresses educational issues surrounding incarcerated youth in the United States and the impact they have on communities when they return to society. Despite research that documents the importance of literacy skills and quality education; many youth in corrections are not receiving adequate or appropriate educational structure to meet their specific needs (Keith, & McCray 2002). Educational and policy makers often view schooling as the most accessible and reliable pathway toward a healthy and productive future for youth released from secure custody. To provide a conceptual overview for this study, the literature will present significant facts, effects, and contributing factors of youth incarceration. Additionally, a comprehensive exploration of education as it pertains to juveniles that are delinquent and/or disabled will also be presented, comparing negative and positive factors as they apply to educational processes. Moreover, this study proposes that additional funding be provided by three main sources, the federal government, state and local municipalities, as well as delimiting other contributors such as privatized foundations (e. g. Farms, Ranches, etc...).

Table Of Content
I Introduction 1

II. Literature Review……………………………………………….. 7 III. Delinquent Juvenile Offender…………………………………… 18 IV. Programs Measured…………………………………………….. 28 V Juvenile Delinquent detainees…………………………………... 32 VI Funding Received For Juvenile Offenders……………………… 37

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
Formerly incarcerated youths present unique challenges for themselves, their families, and communities, including the school that receives them on discharge from the justice system (Lauri Goldkind, 2011). Facilitating a smooth community transition for school age ex-offenders is vitally important to their successful reentry. Educational and juvenile justice scholars and policy makers often view schooling as the most accessible and reliable pathway toward a healthy and productive future for youths released from secure custody (Bullis, Yovanoff, Muller, & Havel, 2002; Sullivan, 2004). Studies show that the life chances and social outcomes of disadvantaged youths are a function of their educational experiences and opportunities (Levin, Belfield, Muennig, & Rouse, 2006). Without a high school diploma or some other meaningful educational certification, young ex-offenders, particularly those of African American decent, face a bleak future. “Research has demonstrated the correlations between the lack of educational attainment and involvement in the juvenile justice system and the importance of education in preventing (recidivism) return visits” (Maguine & Loeber, 1996, p.1). In acknowledgement of the importance of education in the juvenile justice system, according to Hockenberry and Sickmund (2009 p. 1), more than 2,600 residential juvenile justice facilities report providing education services around the country, the prevalence and type of education services, screening for grade level academic needs, student participation in education services, perceived quality of education services, and student academic and vocational outcomes vary. In addition, according to the National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center, most facilities provide educational screening for grade level proficiency, placement and educational needs. About 81 percent evaluate all youth, 8 percent evaluate some youth and 10 percent do not screen any youth at all (www.neglected-delinquent.org, 2010). In analysis of this study, with varying academic procedures concerning juvenile detainees and with some states not implementing any procedures at all, this study proposes an increase in funding from local, state and the federal government to assist juvenile correctional facilities in their...
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