Dammer and Albanese (2011) define the subject of comparative criminal justice studies to “investigate and evaluate a national system of justice in terms of other countries cultures or institutions” (p.2). As a method of analysis, comparative criminal justice offers insight into the different methods in which countries handle crime within their nation, law enforcement and legal system as a whole (Dammer & Albanese, 2011). B.
Criminal justice systems operate many different functions. As a system, it includes the involvement of several actors like police and courts to enforce the law and serve justice within a legal system to those who violate laws. Regarding different offenses, crimes can vary in jurisdiction and in meaning. For example, transnational crimes are what Dammer and Albanese (2011) describe as “offenses whose inceptions, acts and impact involve more than one country” (Dammer & Albanese, 2011, p.2). Examples of transnational crimes include drug trafficking, counterfeiting, extortion and racketeering (Dammer & Albanese, 2011). C.
For some countries in the Middle East such as Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, and Kuwait, legal tradition follows Sacred Law or the use of religious doctrines as the dominant justification to that nation’s law. For countries that use the Sacred Law tradition, it becomes very hard to distinguish which laws are based on religious doctrine or secular in nature and free from religious influence (Dammer & Albanese, 2011). Looking at an example, in Saudi Arabia, the Sacred Law referred to as Islamic law, is the foundation of all law within that country. Islamic law is structured to govern the people under guidelines from the two books of Shari’a and Sunnah, believed to be “rules of conduct revealed by God” (Dammer & Albanese, 2011, p.54). Shari’a which translates into “the way”, holds characteristics such that it “remains valid whether recognized by the state or not”, and its origins are strictly from divine revelation itself (Dammer & Albanese, 2011,p.55). In its functions, Shari’a relates to personal behavior of individuals, distinguishing criminal offenses from “acts against God or crimes against others in society”, as well as the structure of courtrooms and court procedures (Dammer & Albanese, 2011.p.56). D.
International crimes are offenses that are “against the peace and security of mankind” and are recognized by nearly all nations in the world (Dammer & Albanese, 2011,p.2). Similar to transnational offenses, international crime can involve more than one country, although that may not always be the case. More importantly, Dammer and Albanese note international crimes go against “international agreements between countries or legal precedents developed”, and in most situations pertain to cases of torture, extreme mass killings, and other inhumane acts (Dammer & Albanese, 2011,p.2). International crimes are an issue for many nations sharing similar attitudes about these gruesome offenses and as whole constitute them as illegal. E.
Policing organization varies among nations; the Gendarmerie Nationale (GN) is one of the two French police organizations functioned by the French government (Dammer & Albanese, 2011). Dammer and Albanese (2011) note the two organizations Gendarmerie Nationale and Police Nationale (PN) carry out similar “conventional deviance control responsibilities” (p.99). However, under command of the Ministry of Defense, GN operational duties of basic police tasks cover the span of over 10 regions in France, more specifically rural areas with small populations (Dammer & Albanese, 2011). While these organizations are separately trained, the Gendarmerie Nationale places more emphasis on militant aspects within police work. Differentiating the two organizations in times of crime and civil order control among civilians, the GN utilizes its specialized branch Gendarmerie Mobile to handle the civil disorder and situations that could be possibly violent (Dammer &...