Links to the Past
Most correctional facilities are still in rural areas in line with Quaker beliefs that offenders could be redeemed only if removed from city distractions. B.
The 1940s and 50s image of the ‘big house’ is still imprinted on most American minds: a walled prison with large, tiered cell blocks, a yard, shops, and industries. 1.
The South did not conform to this model.
Racial segregation was maintained.
Prisoners were used as farm labor.
The rehabilitative model of the 1960s and 1970s
Treatment programs administered
During the past 30 years the prison population has changed. 1.
There has been a major increase in the number of African American and Hispanic American inmates. 2.
More inmates come from urban areas.
More inmates have been convicted of drug-related and violent offenses. 4.
Former street gangs regroup inside prisons and have raised levels of violence in many institutions. 5.
The rise of public employee unions have improved working conditions, safety procedures, and training. E.
Current focus of corrections has shifted to crime control, which emphasizes the importance of incarceration.
The Goals of Incarceration
Three models of incarceration have been prominent since the early 1940s: 1.
The custodial model – based on the assumption that prisoners have been incarcerated for the protection of society and emphasizes security, discipline, and order subordinating the prisoner to the authority of the warden.. This model was prevalent in corrections before World War II and dominates most maximum-security institutions today. 2.
The rehabilitation model – developed in the 1950s, it emphasizes treatment programs to reform the offender. 3.
The reintegration model – linked to the structures and goals of community corrections, it emphasizes maintaining offender ties to family and community. B.
Correctional institutions that conform to each of these models can be found, but most prisons are mainly custodial.
Organization for Incarceration
Prisons are operated by all 50 states and the federal government. 2.
There are 1,208 confinement facilities; 85 % are run by the states. 3.
84 % of the facilities are for men only.
8% are for women only.
8% house both sexes.
Federal Bureau of Prisons
Jurisdiction of federal criminal law is restricted to crimes involving interstate commerce, certain serious felonies such as bank robbery, violation of other federal laws and crimes committed on federal property. 2.
Since the “war on drugs” in the 1980s, drug offenders in federal prisons make up about 56% of the inmate population. 3.
Federal prisoners are often a more sophisticated breed of criminal, from a higher socioeconomic class, than the typical state prisoner. 4.
Federal sentencing guidelines have increased the probability of imprisonment substantially. 5.
The bureau of prison is highly centralized with a staff of over 33,000 who supervise more than 150,000 prisoners. 6.
The bureau operates 104 confinement facilities (see figure 10.1). C.
State Prison Systems – 94% of offenders are held in confinement facilities operated by the state; administration of prisons is a function of the executive branch. 1.
The total capacity of a state’s prisons reflects the size of the state’s population. 2.
States vary considerably in the number, size, type, and location of correctional facilities. 3.
Over 435,000 people work in state institutions.
The Design and Classification of Prisons
Form follows function: the design of a structure should serve its purpose. 1.
During the penitentiary era, institutions were to promote penance. 2.
When prison industry became the focus, a different design enhanced the efficiency of workshops. 3.
When punishment held sway, emphasis was on the fortress-like edifice that ensures security. 4.
During the rehabilitation era, new prisons were built in styles thought to promote treatment...
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