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Chapter 1 Study Guide
After studying Chapter1, you should:
1. Be able to describe the development and significance of the relationship between hominids and their changing environment and be able to identify the three distinctive traits of human beings. 2. Be able to describe the ways in which early humans adapted to different environments and be able to differentiate between hunter-gatherer and food-producing economies. 3. Be able to analyze the environmental causes and effects of the transition from hunter-gatherer to food producing economies. 4. Be able to describe the relationship between the development of different economies (hunter-gatherer, agricultural and pastoral) and their different social and cultural characteristics.

Students should be familiar with the following terms in the chapter: civilization
culture
history
Stone Age
Paleolithic
Neolithic
foragers
Agricultural Revolutions
Holocene
megalith
Babylon
Sumerians
Semitic
city-state
Hammurabi
scribe
ziggurat
amulet
cuneiform
pharaoh
ma’at
pyramid
Memphis
Thebes
hieroglyphics
papyrus
mummy
Harappa
Mohenjo-Daro

Discussion Questions:
1. How did the physical and cultural characteristics of hominids change over time, and how do scientists document and explain these changes? 2. How have changes in the environment influenced the physical development of the human species? 3. What is culture? Do environmental conditions and changes in the techniques of production have an effect on culture? If so, how? 4. What effects did the agricultural revolutions have on Neolithic societies? 5. What were women’s roles in the first 4 million years of human history? What evidence can we find that might give us some indications of what women’s roles may have been? Does the evidence indicate how women’s roles may have changed over time? How and why might such change have occurred?

Sample essay questions:
1. Briefly define culture...
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