Communicate with other staff/departments
Review historical data trends
Review citizen input
Request traffic control
1. Select the proper location
2. Plan the data collection preparations
3. Complete the pre-study documentation
1. Collect the data
2. Evaluate the data
3. Calculate the traffic volume trends
1. Finalize the report
2. File the report
3. Communicate the results
Traffic volume studies are conducted to determine the number, movements, and classifications of roadway vehicles at a given location. These data can help identify critical flow time periods, determine the influence of large vehicles or pedestrians on vehicular traffic flow, or document traffic volume trends. The length of the sampling period depends on the type of count being taken and the intended use of the data recorded. For example, an intersection count may be conducted during the peak flow period. If so, manual count with 15-minute intervals could be used to obtain the traffic volume data.
U S I N G C O U N T P E R I O D TO D E T E R M I N E S T U D Y M E T H O D Two methods are available for conducting traffic volume counts: (1) manual and (2) automatic. Manual counts are typically used to gather data for determination of vehicle classification, turning movements, direction of travel, pedestrian movements, or vehicle occupancy. Automatic counts are typically used to gather data for determination of vehicle hourly patterns, daily or seasonal variations and growth trends, or annual traffic estimates.
The selection of study method should be determined using the count period. The count period should be representative of the time of day, day of month, and month of year for the study area. For example, counts at a summer resort would not be taken in January. The count period should avoid special event or compromising weather conditions (Sharma 1994). Count periods may range from 5 minutes to 1 year. Typical count periods are 15 minutes or 2 hours for peak periods, 4 hours for morning and afternoon peaks, 6 hours for morning, midday, and afternoon peaks, and 12 hours for daytime periods (Robertson 1994). For example, if you were conducting a 2-hour peak period count, eight 15-minute counts would be required.
The study methods for short duration counts are described in this chapter in order from least expensive (manual) to most expensive (automatic), assuming the user is starting with no equipment.
Traffic Volume Counts
(1) MANUAL COUNT METHOD
Most applications of manual counts require small samples of data at any given location. Manual counts are sometimes used when the effort and expense of automated equipment are not justified. Manual counts are necessary when automatic equipment is not available.
Manual counts are typically used for periods of less than a day. Normal intervals for a manual count are 5, 10, or 15 minutes. Traffic counts during a Monday morning rush hour and a Friday evening rush hour may show exceptionally high volumes and are not normally used in analysis; therefore, counts are usually conducted on a Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday.
Manual Count Recording Methods
Manual counts are recorded using one of three methods: tally sheets, mechanical counting boards, or electronic counting boards.
Recording data onto tally sheets is the simplest means of conducting manual counts. The data can be recorded with a tick mark on a pre-prepared field form. A watch or stopwatch is necessary to measure the desired count interval. A blank traffic volume count intersection tally sheet is provided in Appendix B.
Mechanical Counting Boards
Mechanical count boards consist of counters mounted on a board that record each direction of travel. Common counts include pedestrian, bicycle, vehicle classification, and traffic volume counts. Typical counters are push button devices with...