July Crisis

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July Crisis
The assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, was perhaps the main influence and first shoves towards a world war. But, it was Germany’s eagerness to ally with Austria-Hungry and involvement that eventually escalated On June 28, 1914 Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, immediately sending an outrage across Europe. Princip was a Serb born in Bosnia, and was part of a secret society known as the Black Hand. This society supplied arms and was known for previous assassinations. Although the people and Government may not have been fond of Ferdinand, assassinations of authority figures just didn’t occur at this time. Austria-Hungary asked for Germany’s alliance if they were to go towards war against the Serbian nation. On July 5, 1914 Germany agreed, as long as it was a quick operation, and officially gave Austria-Hungary a “Blank Check” in regards to back up. Chief of staff Conrad Von Hotzendorff wanted a to the assassination posed an ultimatum towards the Serbian Government on July 23, 1914 because Serbia had tolerated the rise of a disruptive movement within its borders and had done towards the assassination and agreed to comply with all other demands set forth by Austria-

preemptive strike and had hoped that the Russians would back down. Austria-Hungary in regards nothing to prevent its criminal activities. Austria-Hungary had posed that Serbia set investigation 1 Winson Chu, “The 'Spirit of 1914': Enthusiasm and National Community?” (History 248 lecture, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, September 21, 2010). 2 “Germany’s Balkan Policy,” printed as Document 24 in: Gordon Martel, The Origins of the First World War, 3rd ed (Harlow: Pearson Longman, 2003), 101-2, here p. 112-113. 3 “War Enthusiasm, ‘The World War I Reader,’ 2007,” (accessed through E-Reserve, History 248, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Spring 2008), here p. 4. 4 “The Policy of Sir Edward Grey,” printed as Document 26 in: Gordon Martel, The Origins of the First World War, 3rd ed (Harlow: Pearson Longman, 2003), 101-2, here p. 114-115.

not back down, and since all the terms of the ultimatum were not met, the “Third Balkan War” officially was declared on July 28 th . The capital of Serbia, Belgrade, was invaded the next day. According to the definition given by Winson Chu, Irredentism is “a state-based, but not necessarily government backed, movement that seeks to retrieve an external minority together with the territory that later inhabits across an existing border”. So basically, Austria-Hungary wanted to add territory as well as population to its existing state by invading Serbia. During the German secretary for foreign affairs, Von Jagow (on July 18 th ), addresses the ambassador in London and explains the reasons for Germany’s policy in the July Crisis. “Austria is now going to force a showdown with Serbia, and has told us so…. The more determined Austria shows herself, the more energetically we support her”.

“We must attempt to localise the conflict between Austria and Serbia. Whether we shall allies”. Since Russia supported Serbia, and France and Great Britain were Russia’s allies, surely enough a local war started to navigate and involve the rest of the world. Germany’s nightmare involved a dual alliance and now was being forced to fight a two front war. A security dilemma came up with a plan to quarrel against France and Russia. “Russia is not ready to strike at present. Nor will France or England be anxious for war at the present time”. Germany believed

Hungry within forty-eight hours. Serbia accepted the vast of the terms set forth by the ultimatum on July 25 th , but did not see eye to eye on all. Serbia sought out the help of Russia. Russia could Balkan Crisis, Germany was leaning towards peace. Now, the German Balkan Policy, written by succeed in this will depend first on Russia, and secondly on the moderating influence...
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