Judgment Enunciation Proposition

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2/10/2013

Judgment

JUDGMENT Enunciation Proposition

It is defined as a mental process by which the intellect makes a pronouncement on the agreement or disagreement of ideas.

It is also the process by which the intellect compares two (2) ideas. 

If the pronouncement is the agreement of ideas, it is called affirmative judgment. If there is a disagreement, then it is called negative judgment.

By nature, a judgment, whether that is affirmative or negative, can be true or false. TRUE = reality FALSE = not in reality



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Proposition
Enunciation is the mental product of judgment. Once this is articulated it is called proposition. It is the external sign of judgment.  It is a judgment expressed in a sentence. 

Reminder: All propositions are sentences. BUT not all sentences are propositions.

Classifications of Propositions
Categorical – “all” “some” “no” Hypothetical – if, then; either – or; at the same time & both Causal – causes, reasons, explanations

Parts of a Categorical Proposition

All students
Subject-Term

are

intelligent.

Copula Predicate-Term

Subject: idea in which assertion is made Predicate: idea that is affirmed or negated Copula: connector/linking verb Quantifier: extension of the idea

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Quantity of the Proposition
The quantifier determines the quantity of the proposition. All students are intelligent.  universal Some students are diligent. particular

Quality of the Proposition
The copula determines the quality of the proposition. All students are intelligent.  affirmative All students are not intelligent.  negative No students are intelligent.  negative

Quantity of the Predicate
If the proposition is affirmative, the quantity of the predicate is PARTICULAR. exception: If the predicate is a proper name, the quantity of the predicate is UNIVERSAL. If the predicate is an essential definition, the quantity of the predicate is UNIVERSAL.

Types of Categorical Proposition
A – universal & affirmative
A UNIVERSAL E

Every man is unique.
AFFIRMATIVE

E – universal & negative
Each man is not talented.

NEGATIVE

I – particular & affirmative
Few men are skilled.

If the proposition is negative, the quantity of the predicate is UNIVERSAL.

O – particular & negative
Almost all men are not diligent.
I PARTICULAR O

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Hypothetical Proposition
It affirms or deny relationships between propositions. Sub-class: conditional disjunctive conjunctive

Conditional Hypothetical
Proposition

If-then statement It constitutes two (2) clauses in which one asserts something as true on the basis of the truth of the other. The truth of the consequent is based on the truth of the antecedent.

RULE:
There must be real dependence.
If a nurse seriously violates the code of ethics, then he is dismissed from his work. If you are a good taxpayer, then you are a good citizen. If you study well, then you will pass the quiz. If Micheal is the husband of Rose, then Micheal is the father of Rose’s children.

Disjunctive Hypothetical
Proposition

Either-or statement It presents two or more alternative propositions which one is true.

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RULE:
Both alternatives must be contradictory.
Mr. Shane is either the winner or the loser. The Mapua Cardinals is the best or the worst team in NCAA for this season. A man is either rich or non-rich. You are either dull or bright.

Conjunctive Hypothetical
Proposition

It presents two alternatives that deny the possibility of being true at the same time.

RULE:
Both alternatives must be contradictory.
The patient cannot be both a male or a female. Mr. Bean cannot sing and dance at the same time. It cannot be dead and alive at the same time. You cannot be both bright and pretty.

Causal Proposition
It signifies connections of clauses through causal conjunctions such as because, since, for, etc. It may give the cause, reason, or explanation....
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