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Joseph hasn’t been treating his body very good. He has been eating fatty foods and gaining weight. He’s spending more time at work, adding stress and getting less sleep. Joseph has recently started smoking again after quitting for just a few years. The weight gain and fatty foods contribute build up on the inner arterial walls, decreasing the blood flow to the heart and other tissues. When the lack of blood flow occurs the amount of oxygen, blood glucose, and waste removal are greatly deprived from those tissues. Stress and lack of sleep reduce the immune system’s ability to fight of antigens. Some people choose unhealthy ways of stress relief. In Joseph’s case he has started smoking again
Oxygen and glucose are the main sources of energy
in the cell. When there is a lack of oxygen and glucose our body automatically transfers from aerobic to anaerobic glycolysis to try to keep ATP available for active transport to maintain homeostasis inside the cell for as long as possible to reduce cell death. The cell works hard to maintain pH levels, carbon dioxide levels, and the sodium potassium pump to help prevent death of the cell or tissue.
Lysosomes membranes as part of their structure which have active transport pumps to help maintain the acidic interior to the lysosome because lysosome enzymes work their best at acidic levels. So when the membrane starts to break down and the lack of waste disposal increases intracellular pH levels the lysosomes basically engulf the cell and the cell self-destructs.
A persons mitochondrial DNA is the site of predetermined genetic disposition in Joseph’s case this is where his family history of vascular disease is already...
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