In Argentina war of independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine forces under Jose de San Martin against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown. On July 9, 1816, an assembly met in San Miguel de Tucuman, declared full independence with provisions for a national constitution. Chile This war of independence was an armed conflict between the people of Chile and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 10, 1810 and extended until 1821.A declaration of independence was officially issued by Chile on February 12,1818 and formally recognized by Spain in 1840, when full diplomatic relations ( conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states) were established. Peru The Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian Peninsula should have led to a degradation of royal power, but since nearby Upper Peru was under the attack of armies from Buenos Aires, the Peruvian oligarchs supported the royalist cause. Fear of indigenous rebellion also remained from the 1780-1781 revolt that was headed by José Gabriel "Tupac Amaru" Condorcanqui. Finally, the viceroys of Peru traditionally had the support of the Lima oligarchs because of their opposition to the commercial interests of Buenos Aires and Chile. Therefore, the Viceroyalty of Peru became the last redoubt of the Spanish Monarchy in South America. Nevertheless, a Creole rebellion arose in 1812 in Huánuco and another in Cusco between 1814 and 1816. Both were suppressed. These rebellions were supported by the armies of Buenos Aires. Peru finally succumbed after the decisive continental campaigns of José de San Martín (1820–1823) and Simón Bolívar (1824). While San Martin was in charge of the land campaign, a newly built Chilean Navy led by Lord Cochrane transported the fighting troops and launched a sea campaign against the Spanish fleet in the Pacific. San Martín, who had displaced the royalists of Chile after the Battle of Maipú, and who had disembarked in Paracas in 1820,...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document